> PROXY BETA
--A broad representation of the overall market. A market proxy is chosen and used to simplify studies that require a market variable, statistic or comparison. The market proxy, once selected, is then used in performance evaluations and studies, or to test a hypothesis.
--Proxy Beta is used when the firm has no market listing and thus no Beta of its own. It is taken from a comparable listed firm, and adjusted as necessary for relative financial gearing levels, Hence Proxy Discount Rate.
-- every proxy for the market would need to be unique, according to what is being traded or measured. For example, the S&P 500 could be used as a market proxy when evaluating the excess returns of a fund manager only using stock from the S&P 500. A different proxy would be needed, however, to assess a manager trading in futures or using fixed-income arbitrage.