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what are the main causes of npa?

Avatar 37a3bd7bc7328f0ead2c0f6f635dddf60615e676e6b4ddf964144012e529de45 aliya bhat asked about 3 years ago

what do you mean by NAP(non performing assets)?what are the main causes of npa?

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Avatar 37a3bd7bc7328f0ead2c0f6f635dddf60615e676e6b4ddf964144012e529de45 acharya answered over 2 years ago

An asset is classified as Non-performing Asset (NPA) if due in the form of principal and interest are not paid by the borrower for a period of 180 days. However with effect from March 2004, default status would be given to a borrower if dues are not paid for 90 days. If any advance or credit facilities granted by banks to a borrower becomes non-performing, then the bank will have to treat all the advances/credit facilities granted to that borrower as non-performing without having any regard to the fact that there may still exist certain advances / credit facilities having performing status. Though the term NPA connotes a financial asset of a commercial bank, which has stopped earning an expected reasonable return, it is also a reflection of the productivity of the unit, firm, concern, industry and nation where that asset is idling. Viewed with this perspective, the NPA is a result of an environment that prevents it from performing up to expected levels.

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Avatar 37a3bd7bc7328f0ead2c0f6f635dddf60615e676e6b4ddf964144012e529de45 CA Sandeep Bohra answered almost 3 years ago

Granting of credit for economic activities is the prime duty of banking. Apart from raising resources through fresh deposits, borrowings and recycling of funds received back from borrowers constitute a major part of funding credit dispensation activity. **Meaning of NPAs** An asset is classified as Non-performing Asset (NPA) if due in the form of principal and interest are not paid by the borrower for a period of 180 days. However with effect from March 2004, default status would be given to a borrower if dues are not paid for 90 days. If any advance or credit facilities granted by banks to a borrower becomes non-performing, then the bank will have to treat all the advances/credit facilities granted to that borrower as non-performing without having any regard to the fact that there may still exist certain advances / credit facilities having performing status. Though the term NPA connotes a financial asset of a commercial bank, which has stopped earning an expected reasonable return, it is also a reflection of the productivity of the unit, firm, concern, industry and nation where that asset is idling. Viewed with this perspective, the NPA is a result of an environment that prevents it from performing up to expected levels. The definition of NPAs in Indian context is certainly more liberal with two quarters norm being applied for classification of such assets. The RBI is moving over to one-quarter norm from 2004 onwards. **Causes for Non Performing Assets** A strong banking sector is important for a flourishing economy. The failure of the banking sector may have an adverse impact on other sectors. The Indian banking system, which was operating in a closed economy, now faces the challenges of an open economy. On one hand a protected environment ensured that banks never needed to develop sophisticated treasury operations and Asset Liability Management skills. On the other hand a combination of directed lending and social banking relegated profitability and competitiveness to the background. The net result was unsustainable NPAs and consequently a higher effective cost of banking services. One of the main causes of NPAs into banking sector is the directed loans system under which commercial banks are required a prescribed percentage of their credit (40%) to priority sectors. As of today nearly 7 percent of Gross NPAs are locked up in 'hard-core' doubtful and loss assets, accumulated over the years. The problem India Faces is not lack of strict prudential norms but i. The legal impediments and time consuming nature of asset disposal proposal. ii. Postponement of problem in order to show higher earnings. iii. Manipulation of debtors using political influence. **There are several reasons for an account becoming NPA.** * Internal factors * External factors **Internal factors:** 1. Funds borrowed for a particular purpose but not use for the said purpose. 2. Project not completed in time. 3. Poor recovery of receivables. 4. Excess capacities created on non-economic costs. 5. In-ability of the corporate to raise capital through the issue of equity or other debt instrument from capital markets. 6. Business failures. 7. Diversion of funds for expansion\modernization\setting up new projects\ helping or promoting sister concerns. 8. Willful defaults, siphoning of funds, fraud, disputes, management disputes, mis-appropriation etc., 9. Deficiencies on the part of the banks viz. in credit appraisal, monitoring and follow-ups, delay in settlement of payments\ subsidiaries by government bodies etc., **External factors:** 1. Sluggish legal system - Long legal tangles Changes that had taken place in labour laws Lack of sincere effort. 2. Scarcity of raw material, power and other resources. 3. Industrial recession. 4. Shortage of raw material, raw material\input price escalation, power shortage, industrial recession, excess capacity, natural calamities like floods, accidents. 5. Failures, non payment\ over dues in other countries, recession in other countries, externalization problems, adverse exchange rates etc. 6. Government policies like excise duty changes, Import duty changes etc.,

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