> Types of accounts which can be maintained by an NRI / PIO in India
**A. Non-Resident Ordinary Rupee Account (NRO Account)**
Any person resident outside India may open NRO account with an authorised dealer or an authorised bank for the purpose of putting through bona fide transaction in rupees.
Opening of accounts by individual/ entities of Pakistan and entities of Bangladesh require prior approval of Reserve Bank of India.
NRO accounts may be opened / maintained in the form of current, savings, recurring or fixed deposit accounts.
● Savings Account - Normally maintained for crediting legitimate dues /earnings / income such as dividends, interest etc. Banks are free to determine the interest rates.
● Term Deposits - Banks are free to determine the interest rates. Interest rates offered by banks on NRO deposits cannot be higher than those offered by them on comparable domestic rupee deposits.
● Account should be denominated in Indian Rupees.
● Permissible credits to NRO account are transfers from rupee accounts of non-resident banks, remittances received in permitted currency from outside India through normal banking channels, permitted currency tendered by account holder during his temporary visit to India, legitimate dues in India of the account holder like current income like rent, dividend, pension, interest, etc., sale proceeds of assets including immovable property acquired out of rupee/ foreign currency funds or by way of legacy/ inheritance.
● Eligible debits such as all local payments in rupees including payments for investments as specified by the Reserve Bank and remittance outside India of current income like rent, dividend, pension, interest, etc., net of applicable taxes, of the account holder.
● NRI/PIO may remit from the balances held in NRO account an amount not exceeding USD one million per financial year, subject to payment of applicable taxes.
● The limit of USD 1 million per financial year includes sale proceeds of immovable properties held by NRIs/ PIOs.
● Other than current income and the limit of USD 1 Mn per financial year applicable to NRIs/PIOs, balances in NRO accounts cannot be repatriated without the prior approval of RBI.
● The accounts may be held jointly with residents and / or with non-resident Indian.
● The NRO account holder may opt for nomination facility.
● NRO (current/savings) account can also be opened by a foreign national of non-Indian origin visiting India, with funds remitted from outside India through banking channel or by sale of foreign exchange brought by him to India. The details of this facility are given in the FAQs on “Accounts opened by Foreign Nationals and Foreign Tourists” available on the RBI website.
● Loans to non-resident account holders and to third parties may be granted in Rupees by Authorized Dealer / bank against the security of fixed deposits subject to certain terms and conditions.
**B. Non-Resident (External) Rupee Account (NRE Account)**
● NRE account may be in the form of savings, current, recurring or fixed deposit accounts (with maturity of minimum one year). Such accounts can be opened only by the NRI (as defined under Regulation 2(vi) of Notification No. FEMA 5/2000-RB dated May 3, 2000) himself and not through the holder of the power of attorney.
● NRIs may be permitted to open NRE account with their resident close relatives (relative as defined in Section 6 of the Companies Act, 1956) on ‘former or survivor ‘basis. The resident close relative shall be eligible to operate the account as a Power of Attorney holder in accordance with the extant instructions during the life time of the NRI/PIO account holder.
● Account will be maintained in Indian Rupees.
● Balances held in the NRE account are freely repatriable.
● Accrued interest income and balances held in NRE accounts are exempt from Income tax and Wealth tax, respectively.
● Authorised dealers/authorised banks may at their discretion/commercial judgement allow for a period of not more than two weeks, overdrawings in NRE savings bank accounts, up to a limit of Rs.50,000 subject to the condition that such overdrawings together with the interest payable thereon are cleared/repaid within a period of two weeks, out of inward remittances through normal banking channels or by transfer of funds from other NRE/FCNR accounts.
● Savings - Banks are free to determine the interest rates.
● Term deposits – Banks are free to determine the interest rates of term deposits of maturity of one year and above. Interest rates offered by banks on NRE deposits cannot be higher than those offered by them on comparable domestic rupee deposits.
● Permissible credits to NRE account are inward remittance to India in permitted currency, proceeds of account payee cheques, demand drafts / bankers' cheques, issued against encashment of foreign currency, where the instruments issued to the NRE account holder are supported by encashment certificate issued by AD Category-I / Category-II, transfers from other NRE / FCNR accounts, sale proceeds of FDI investments, interest accruing on the funds held in such accounts, interest on Government securities/dividends on units of mutual funds purchased by debit to the NRE/FCNR(B) account of the holder, certain types of refunds, etc.
● Eligible debits are local disbursements, transfer to other NRE / FCNR accounts of person eligible to open such accounts, remittance outside India, investments in shares / securities/commercial paper of an Indian company, etc.
● Loans can be extended against security of funds held in NRE Account either to the depositors or third parties without any ceiling subject to usual margin requirements.
● Such accounts can be operated through power of attorney in favour of residents for the limited purpose of withdrawal of local payments or remittances through normal banking channels to the account holder himself.