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# describe 3 methods of black box testing

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Black box testing treats the system as a โblack-boxโ, so it doesnโt explicitly use Knowledge of the internal structure or code. Or in other words the Test engineer need not know the internal working of the โBlack boxโ or application. **Methods of Black box Testing:** **Graph Based Testing Methods:** Each and every application is build up of some objects. All such objects are identified and graph is prepared. From this object graph each object relationship is identified and test cases written accordingly to discover the errors. **Error Guessing:** This is purely based on previous experience and judgment of tester. Error Guessing is the art of guessing where errors can be hidden. For this technique there are no specific tools, writing the test cases that cover all the application paths. **Boundary Value Analysis:** Many systems have tendency to fail on boundary. So testing boundry values of application is important. Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) is a test Functional Testing technique where the extreme boundary values are chosen. Boundary values include maximum, minimum, just inside/outside boundaries, typical values, and error values.

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Specification-based testing technique is also known as โblack-boxโ or input/output driven testing techniques because they view the software as a black-box with inputs and outputs. The testers have no knowledge of how the system or component is structured inside the box. In black-box testing the tester is concentrating on what the software does, not how it does it. The definition mentions both functional and non-functional testing. Functional testing is concerned with what the system does its features or functions. Non-functional testing is concerned with examining how well the system does. Non-functional testing like performance, usability, portability, maintainability, etc. Specification-based techniques are appropriate at all levels of testing (component testing through to acceptance testing) where a specification exists. For example, when performing system or acceptance testing, the requirements specification or functional specification may form the basis of the tests. There are four specification-based or black-box technique: Equivalence partitioning Boundary value analysis Decision tables State transition testing

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Graph Based Testing Methods: Each and every application is build up of some objects. All such objects are identified and graph is prepared. From this object graph each object relationship is identified and test cases written accordingly to discover the errors. Error Guessing: This is purely based on previous experience and judgment of tester. Error Guessing is the art of guessing where errors can be hidden. For this technique there are no specific tools, writing the test cases that cover all the application paths.

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Dear Roshni > Methods of Black Box Testing Black Box Testing method includes: -- Equivalence partitioning -- Boundary value analysis -- Cause effect graphics techniques Equivalence Partitioning Software testing technique that divides input data of software unit into partition of data from which test cases can be derived. Tries to define test cases that uncover classes of errors. Its goals are: 1) to reduce number of test cases to necessary minimum & 2) to select right test cases to cover all possible scenarios. Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) Since more application errors occur at boundary levels of input domain, BVA is used to identify errors at boundaries rather than finding them in center of input domain. Cause Effect Graphing Techniques (CEG) Provides a concise representation of logical conditions & corresponding actions. Performed once requirements have been reviewed for ambiguity & content is reviewed. There are 4 steps if CEG: Causes & effects listed for a function Development of cause-effect graph Graph converted into decision table Decision table rules converted to test cases Thanks

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