According to Section 77 of the Companies Act, 1956, all types of charges created by a company are to be registeredby the ROC, where they are non-compliant and are are not filed with the Registrar of Companies for registration, it shall be void as against the liquidator and any other creditor of the company. This does not, however, mean that the charge is altogether void and the debt is not recoverable. So long as the company does not go into liquidation, the charge is good and may be enforced. Void against the liquidator means that the liquidator on winding up of the company can ignore the charge and can treat the concerned creditor as unsecured creditor. The property will be treated as free of charge i.e. the creditor cannot sell the property to recover its dues. Void against any creditor of the company means that if any subsequent charge is created on the same property and the earlier charge is not registered, the earlier charge would have no consequence and the latter charge if registered would enjoy priority. In other words, the latter charge holder can have the property sold in order to recover its money. Thus, non-filing of particulars of a charge does not invalidate the charge against the company as a going concern. It is void only against the liquidator and the creditors at the time of liquidation. The company itself cannot have a cause of action arising out of nonregistration. Thanks
Section 86 of the Companies Act, 2013 provides that if any company contravenes any provisions of the Chapter VI on Registration of Charges, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than rupees one lakh but which may extend to ten lakhs rupees. Every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.