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Verbal reasoning Syllogism notes-CSEET

Verbal reasoning Syllogism notes-CSEET

Verbal reasoning Syllogism:

ICSI CSEET: The Council of the ICSI has released a notice regarding CSEET on the day of the inauguration of ICSI Golden Jubilee Celebrations on 4th Oct 2017.

The Gazette Notification on the Company Secretaries (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 has been published on 3rd February 2020 in the Official Gazette of India and the same shall be applicable from the said date of publication.

Now ICSI Published a notice regarding CSEET Test which going to start from 2020 May.

We are now going to discuss the details of CSEET Paper-2 Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning – Verbal reasoning Syllogism notes.

Verbal reasoning Syllogism

Verbal reasoning Syllogism

Verbal reasoning Syllogism:


Syllogism is a form of deductive reasoning where you arrive at a specific conclusion by examining two other premises or ideas. Syllogism derives from the Greek word syllogismos, meaning conclusion or inference.

Some syllogisms contain three components:

  • Major Premise
  • Minor Premise
  • Conclusion

For Example : All roses are flowers (major premise). This is a rose (minor premise). Therefore, I am holding a flower (conclusion).

Types of Syllogism

The type of syllogism that typically contains these three components is categorical syllogism. However, there are two other major kinds of syllogism. We’ll discuss each one here, plus enthymemes and syllogistic fallacy.

Categorical Syllogism

As we know, our first example about roses was a categorical syllogism. Categorical syllogisms follow an “If A is part of C, then B is part of C” logic.

Let’s look at some more examples.

All cars have wheels. I drive a car. Therefore, my car has wheels.

  • Major Premise : All cars have wheels.
  • Minor Premise : I drive a car.
  • Conclusion : My car has wheels.

All insects frighten me. That is an insect. Therefore, I am frightened.

  • Major Premise: All insects frighten me.
  • Minor Premise: That is an insect.
  • Conclusion: I am frightened.

Conditional Syllogism

Conditional syllogisms follow an “If A is true, then B is true” pattern of logic. They’re often referred to as hypothetical syllogisms because the arguments aren’t always valid. Sometimes they’re merely an accepted truth.

If Katie is smart, then her parents must be smart.

  • Major premise : Katie is smart.
  • Conclusion : Katie’s parents are smart.

If Richard likes Germany, then he must drive an Audi.

  • Major premise : Richard likes Germany.
  • Conclusion : He must like all things German, including their cars.

Disjunctive Syllogism

Disjunctive syllogisms follow a “Since A is true, B must be false” premise. They don’t state if a major or minor premise is correct. But it’s understood that one of them is correct.

  • Major Premise : This cake is either red velvet or chocolate.
  • Minor Premise : It’s not chocolate.
  • Conclusion : This cake is red velvet.
  • Major Premise : On the TV show Outlander, Claire’s husband is either dead or alive.
  • Minor Premise: He’s not alive.
  • Conclusion: Claire’s husband is dead.


An enthymeme is not one of the major types of syllogism but is what’s known as rhetorical syllogism. These are often used in persuasive speeches and arguments.

Generally, the speaker will omit a major or minor premise, assuming it’s already accepted by the audience.

He couldn’t have stolen the jewelry. I know him.

  • Major Premise: He couldn’t have stolen the jewelry.
  • Minor Premise: I know his character.

Her new purse can’t be ugly. It’s a Louis Vuitton.

  • Major Premise: Her new accessory can’t be ugly.
  • Minor Premise: It’s made by famous designer Louis Vuitton.

In an enthymeme, one premise remains implied. In the examples above, being familiar with someone or something implies an understanding of them.

Syllogistic Fallacy

Some syllogisms contain false presumptions. When you start assuming one of the major or minor premises to be true, even though they’re not based in fact – as with disjunctive syllogisms and enthymemes – you run the risk of making a false presumption.

All crows are black. The bird in my cage is black. Therefore, this bird is a crow.

  • Major Premise: All crows are black.
  • Minor Premise: The bird in my cage is black.
  • Conclusion: This bird is a crow.

The scenery in Ireland is beautiful. I’m in Ireland. Therefore, the scenery must be beautiful.

  • Major Premise: The scenery in Ireland is beautiful.
  • Minor Premise: I’m in Ireland.
  • Conclusion: The scenery is beautiful.

Of course, not every black bird is a crow and not all of Ireland is beautiful. When preparing a speech or writing a paper, we must always make sure we’re not making any sweeping generalizations that will cause people to make false presumptions.

Rules of Syllogism

There are six known rules of syllogism. However, they mainly apply to categorical syllogism, since that is the only category that requires three components: major premise, minor premise, and conclusion. Here are six rules that will ensure you’re making a strong and accurate argument.

  1. Rule One: There must be three terms: the major premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion – no more, no less.
  2. Rule Two: The minor premise must be distributed in at least one other premise.
  3. Rule Three: Any terms distributed in the conclusion must be distributed in the relevant premise.
  4. Rule Four: Do not use two negative premises.
  5. Rule Five: If one of the two premises are negative, the conclusion must be negative.
  6. Rule Six: From two universal premises, no conclusion may be drawn.

Sample Questions

In each of the following questions two statements are given and these statements are followed by two conclusions numbered (1) and (2). You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Give answer:

  • (A) If only (1) conclusion follows
  • (B) If only (2) conclusion follows
  • (C) If either (1) or (2) follows
  • (D) If neither (1) nor (2) follows and
  • (E) If both (1) and (2) follow.
  1. Statements : Some actors are singers. All the singers are dancers.


  1. Some actors are dancers.
  2. No singer is actor.
  3. Only (1) conclusion follows
  4. Only (2) conclusion follows
  5. Either (1) or (2) follows
  6. Neither (1) nor (2) follows
  7. Both (1) and (2) follow

Answer : Option A


Only (1) follows.

  1. Statements : All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes. Conclusions:
  2. All the flutes are instruments.
  3. All the harmoniums are flutes.
  4. Only (1) conclusion follows
  5. Only (2) conclusion follows
  6. Either (1) or (2) follows
  7. Neither (1) nor (2) follows
  8. Both (1) and (2) follow

Answer : Option B


Only (2) follows.

  1. Statements : Some mangoes are yellow. Some tixo are mangoes. Conclusions:
  2. Some mangoes are green.
  3. Tixo is a yellow.
  4. Only (1) conclusion follows
  5. Only (2) conclusion follows
  6. Either (1) or (2) follows
  7. Neither (1) nor (2) follows
  8. Both (1) and (2) follow

Answer : Option D

Explanation :

None of the two follows.

  1. Statements : Some ants are parrots. All the parrots are apples. Conclusions :
  2. All the apples are parrots.
  3. Some ants are apples.
  4. Only (1) conclusion follows
  5. Only (2) conclusion follows
  6. Either (1) or (2) follows
  7. Neither (1) nor (2) follows
  8. Both (1) and (2) follow

Answer : Option B


Only (2) follow.

  1. Statements : Some papers are pens. All the pencils are pens. Conclusions :
  2. Some pens are pencils.
  3. Some pens are papers.
  4. Only (1) conclusion follows
  5. Only (2) conclusion follows
  6. Either (1) or (2) follows
  7. Neither (1) nor (2) follows
  8. Both (1) and (2) follow

Answer : Option E


Both (1) and (2) follow.

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