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Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research MCOM sem 4 Delhi University:- we will provide complete details of Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research MCOM sem 4 Delhi University in this article.

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University

This learning resource is about how to design surveys (or questionnaires) in the social sciences.

Surveys are commonly used in disciplines such as psychology, health, marketing, sociology, governance, and demographics.

Survey research is an efficient way of gathering data to help address a research question. The main challenge is developing reliable and valid measures and sampling representative data.

Survey design is critical in determining the quality of research. The potential for poor design is vast – whether intentionally on the part of the researcher or unintentionally.

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University:-Before designing a survey

It can be very tempting to press ahead with designing a survey. But first, be clear about the purpose of the study and the research methodology.

Before designing a survey, develop a research proposal which clearly explains the:

  1. research purpose
  2. research questions
  3. hypotheses
  4. Research design: Experimental, quasi-experimental, non-experimental
  5. Sampling method
  6. Target constructs – operationally define the:
    1. (independent variables
    2. dependent variables

Have the research proposal peer reviewed and modify as appropriate. Before designing a survey, it is helpful, and generally recommended, to clearly establish a research proposaland to get this proposal peer-reviewed (and/or reviewed by a supervisor). Investment in developing the proposal is generally returned many-fold.

The seven Ps apply to survey design: Prior preparation and planning prevents piss-poor performance.

Poor research results and conclusions emerge from poor data, which is often due to poor survey design. Hence, a well-conducted survey research project should exhibit:

  • clarity in the project’s purposes (and specific research questions and hypotheses)
  • careful development of well-worded questions with appropriate response formats and/or
  • a well designed and implemented sampling method

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University:-Designing a survey

Initial draft survey

  1. Create separate sections for each main purpose/research question/hypothesis
  2. Within each section, brainstorm ways data about topic/question could be obtained and draft items (questions) which you expect can provide a reliable and valid measure of the target constructs; items may also be obtainable from previous surveys. Start off with lots more possible questions/items (based on the operational definitions) than will actually be used; this way, you can cull and refine, using only the best items
  3. For each consider, brainstorm
  4. Add an informed consent statement, a coversheet, and an instructions page
  5. Get the draft survey critically reviewed by others, then redraft etc.
  6. Get assistance with high quality word-processing skills (if you don’t have them) to tweak the essay so that it looks professional
  7. Pre-test the survey (on convenient others), redraft etc.
  8. Pilot test the survey (on target population), redraft etc.
  9. Use the survey in a major study

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University:-Survey structure

  1. Cover letter
  2. Informed consent
  3. Ethics complaints
  4. Sections containing survey questions
    1. Personal details / demographics
    2. One section per major topic
  5. Debrief information

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University:-Types of surveys

Types of surveys are:

  1. Hard copy
  2. Electronic
  3. Face to face
  4. Telephone

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University:-Types of questions

It is surprisingly difficult to develop a “good” survey question or item. Consider each of the following aspects of survey questions, their pros and cons, and with examples:

  1. Objective vs. subjective
  2. Close-ended vs. open-ended
  3. Leading and loaded questions
  4. Positive-, negative-, and double-negative-wording

Types of data

Surveys can be used to collect:

  1. quantitative and/or
  2. qualitative data.

Response formats

It is important to understand the implications of response formats on levels of measurement in survey design and quantitative data analysis.

Some commonly used response formats include:

  • Dichotomous: e.g., Yes or No
  • Multi-chotomous: e.g., Yes, No, or Maybe
  • Multiple response: e.g., Tick all that apply
  • Likert scale: Equally-spaced intervals, usually 3 to 9 intervals
  • Graphical rating: Can mark any point on a continuous scale
  • Ranking: Compare items to each other by placing them in order of descending preference
  • Semantic differential: Put two words at opposite ends of a scale with interval marks
  • Idiographic: Use symbols/pictures instead of words and numbers
  • For more info see: Rating scale (Wikipedia)


Jenkins and Dillman (1995) suggest these general self-report survey design principles:

  1. Use the visual elements of brightness, color, shape, and location in a consistent manner to define the desired navigational path for respondents to follow when answering the questionnaire.
  2. When established format conventions are changed in the midst of a questionnaire use prominent visual guides to redirect respondents.
  3. Place directions where they are to be used and where they can be seen.
  4. Present information in a manner that does not require respondents to connect information from separate locations in order to comprehend it.

Pre-testing and piloting a survey

  1. Have a few people you know look over the survey and fill it out; ask for their feedback and suggestions and make relevant changes
Pilot testing
  1. Arrange for a small group from the target population to complete the survey; analyse their responses, ask for their feedback, and make relevant changes

It is important to understand the purpose of sampling, which is to permit generalization and do so with a tolerable margin of error.


Several biases may influence the reliability and validity of results, including:

  1. Social desirability bias
  2. Order effect
  3. Fatigue effect
  4. Novelty effect
  5. Demand characteristics

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University:-After designing a survey

Once a survey is designed, gather representative data] via sampling, then conduct data analysis.


There are a dazzling array of possible sampling strategies. It is worth considering their strengths, weaknesses, and applicability to your specific situation:

  1. Random sampling
  2. Systematic random sampling
  3. Stratified sampling
  4. Clustering sampling
  5. Convenience sampling

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University:-Summary

In summary, a survey research project should exhibit:

  1. Clarity of research purposes, research questions and hypotheses
  2. Well-worded survey questions, using appropriate response formats and
  3. An appropriate sampling method

Unit IV Survey Design for Business Research Mcom sem 4 Delhi University

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