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Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management MCOM Sem 3 Delhi University : Planning decisions are often made quickly; sometimes in the absence of a thoughtful analysis of available data. A situational assessment is a systematic process to gather, analyze, synthesize and communicate data to inform planning decisions. Information from a situational assessment can be used to inform the goals, objectives, target audiences and activities of a health promotion strategy.

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Situational assessments are carried out to:

• Learn more about a population of interest (i.e., who’s most affected by a certain health issue)

• Anticipate trends and issues that may affect the implementation of a strategy

• Identify community wants, needs, and assets

• Set priorities

• Inform pending decisions regarding a strategy

• Help write funding proposals

According to the Core Competencies for Public Health in Canada, all public health practitioners should be able “…to collect, assess, analyze and apply information…to make evidence-based decisions…and make recommendations for policy and program development.”

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Six strategic steps for conducting a situational assessment

Situational assessment is the second step in Public Health Ontario’s six-step model for planning a health promotion program. A situational assessment can be a large task so we have simplified the process into six strategic steps.  

Step 1: Identify key questions to be answered The first step in a situational assessment is to determine what you need to inform planning decisions. Use the three broad questions and sub-questions below to shape the direction of the situational assessment and develop your research questions.

  • What is the situation?
  • What impact does the current situation have on health outcomes, quality of life and other societal costs, such as noise, air pollution or increased healthcare spending?
  • Which groups of people are at higher risk of health problems and poorer quality of life?
  • Which settings or situations are high risk, or pose a unique opportunity for intervention?
  • How do local stakeholders perceive the situation?
  • What is their capacity to act?
  • What are their interests, mandates, current activities?
  • What are the needs, perceptions and supported directions of key influential community members, and the community-at-large?
  • What influences are making the situation better and worse?
  • What high-risk or negative health behaviours by various groups of people are affecting the situation?
  • Which underlying causes or conditions are driving these behaviours (e.g. individual, community, organizational or system-level causes)?
  • Are there protective factors that can help avoid or alleviate the situation (such as ensuring walkable communities or encouraging strong parent-child relationships)?
  • Which strengths and weaknesses present in your organization may affect your course of action?
  • Which opportunities and threats in your environment may affect your course of action?
  • What possible actions can you take to address the situation?
  • What are other organizations doing, or what have they done in the past, to address this situation?
  • Specifically, what local policies, programs and environmental supports are being developed or implemented within the community?
  • What evaluation data are available for these activities?
  • What is the best available evidence that exists to support various courses of action?

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Step 2: Develop a data gathering plan Questions you develop in the first step will determine data needed. Too much data can become overwhelming; however, you also want a comprehensive plan. Therefore, it is a good idea to develop a data gathering plan to organize sources of data, tasks, and persons responsible. Ensure your data gathering plan includes diverse types of data (e.g. community health status indicators, environmental scans, or best practices); different methods of data collection (e.g. surveys, document review, and literature review); and varied sources of data (e.g. partner organizations, community, and government).

Some sources of information to consider to define the situation include Community Health Status Reports produced by public health units, Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System (RRFS),5 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS),  and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) Infobase. The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT) has created evidence search pyramids8 for major health areas including mental health, injury prevention and environmental health. The search pyramids support the use of more highly-synthesized forms of information, such as guidelines and reviews. Using these more highly-synthesized sources can help save you time.

You can use the pyramids to find literature in your field that has been pre-appraised for methodological quality. It is also important to critically appraise the literature you find, if it has not already been appraised. The Critical Skills Appraisal Program (CASP) has developed eight free and publically available critical appraisal tools10 designed for methodological quality assessment of research. Consider using these to evaluate the literature located by your search.

In terms of specific sources of highly-synthesized evidence as described in the search pyramids, see the National Guidelines Clearinghouse and Turning Research Into Practice database for guidelines (summary-level evidence),12 and Health Evidence for reviews (syntheses). Health Evidence offers a registry of systematic review-level evidence that is pre-appraised and offers quality scores of strong, moderate, or weak for every review included in its regisry. For examples of programs and interventions, visit the Canadian Best Practices Portal, which may indicate some programs that offer outcome or evaluation data.

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Step 3: Gather the data Now that you have identified the research questions and developed a data gathering plan, the next step is to collect data. It is important to note that there are two types of data collection – primary and secondary data collection. Primary data is data that you and your situational assessment team collect yourselves; for example, via surveys, key informant interviews or focus groups.

When collecting primary data it is important to ensure that people collecting the data have the right skills to do so properly. Ensure that your primary data collectors are trained, since this increases their confidence and ability to collect data consistently and correctly. Also ensure that data collection is standardized and done ethically, including documenting informed consent. Secondary data is collected by someone else; for example, by the provincial or federal government, a researcher, or a partner organization. A literature search is also an example of secondary data collection.

If you are carrying out a literature search, document your search strategies, including search terms, and your inclusion and exclusion criteria. As another example of secondary data, Analytic Services at Public Health Ontario developed an interactive database, called Snapshots,15 using core indicators developed by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario

(APHEO). These online dashboards provide information on indicators from a variety of data sources for Ontario and specific public health unit regions.

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Step 4: Organize, synthesize and summarize the data The amount of data generated during a situational assessment can be overwhelming. One of the easiest ways to organize information is to arrange the data according to your original key questions (step 1). For example, if your question was ‘What groups of people are at higher risk of health and quality of life problems’, organize findings that answer this question together.

Using the Ecological Model16 to organize findings could help identify connections of the policy and environmental contexts with the social and individual contexts, allowing you to determine areas you want to address. Two widely-used models in the private sector that may help you understand your findings are SWOT or Force Field Analyses. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis or a Force Field Analysis can help to determine facilitators and barriers to improving the situation.

The Introduction to Planning Health Promotion Programs Workbook  provides more information about how to conduct a SWOT or Force Field Analysis. If possible, summarize findings in a paragraph or five to six bullet points. This will offer others a quick understanding of results and can be useful in any communication products that you develop.

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Step 5: Communicate the information A lot of time and effort has gone into your situational assessment. Make sure the results are not lost in a report! Colleagues, partner organizations and decision makers are all interested in your findings. Therefore, it is important to communicate key findings to each of your stakeholders in a manner that is understandable to each distinct audience.

Consider which information each of your different stakeholders needs to know, and how you can best convey it to them. One strategy is to develop a communication plan which includes your key audience, communication objectives, channels, and communication products. You can sometimes use the same communication products for different audiences – as long as their communication style and your communication objectives for each audience are aligned.

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Step 6: Consider how to proceed with planning It is now time to utilize your findings and decide on your next steps.

Consider: • How do you perceive your ability to affect the situation with the available time, financial resources and mandate?

• What are the gaps in data quality or quantity, relative to stakeholder expectations?

• How might that restrict your ability to make evidence-informed decisions about goals, audiences, objectives, strategies, activities and resources?

• What are your next steps in the planning process? Will you proceed now, or must you revisit research questions, project scope or resources?

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Conclusion

A situational assessment, although time consuming, is an important part of planning an evidenceinformed program. The steps, highlighted above, simplify the process into easily manageable, strategic tasks. To help make this process easier, five downloadable worksheets are available from the Online Health Program Planner (OHPP). 3 If at this time it is not possible to complete an entire situational assessment, you can think about how to include components of a situational assessment in your next operational planning cycle. An environmental scan of partners, key informant interviews, or a focus group with clients can each provide valuable information to aid in decision making.

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Levels of Strategies

The strategic planning process culminates into formulation of strategies for the organisation. A business strategy must contain well-coordinated action programs aimed at securing a long-term competitive edge and which should be sustained by the company

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Corporate Level

In an organisation, there are basically three levels. The top level of the organisation consists of chief executive officer of the company, the board of directors, and administrative officers. The responsibility of the top management is to keep the organisation healthy. This implies that their responsibility is to achieve the planned financial performance of the company in addition to meeting the nonfinancial goals viz. social responsibility and the organisational image. The issues pertaining to business ethics,integrity, and social commitment are dealt with, at this level of strategic decisions.

The corporate level strategies translates the orientation of the stakeholders and the society into the forms of strategies for functional or business levels. By using portfolio approach, a set of natural and generic strategies are generated that must be considered by each business group, depending on their position in the industry attractiveness and competitive strength dimensions. This is the level where vision statement of the companies emerges. 

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Business Level

This level consists of primarily the business managers or managers of Strategic Business units. Here strategies are about how to meet the competitions in a particular product market and strategies have to be related to a unit within an organisation. The managers at this level translate the general statements of direction and intent churned out atcorporate level. They identify the most profitable market segment, where they can excel, keeping in focus the vision of the company.

The corporate values, managerial capabilities, organisational responsibilities, and administrative systems that link strategic and operational decision-making level at all the levels of hierarchy, encompassing all business and functional lines of authority in a company are dealt with at this level of strategy formulation. The managerial style, beliefs, values, ethics, and accepted forms of behaviour must be congruent with the organisational culture and at this level, these aspects are diligently taken care of by strategic managers.

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

Operational Level

Planning alone cannot create massive mobilisation of resources and people and can never generate high quality of strategic thinking required in complex organisational context. For this to happen, the planning should be carefully dovetailed and integrated with significant administrative systems viz. management control, communication, information management, motivation, rewards etc. It is also vital that all these systems are supported by organisational structure that define various authority and responsibility relationships, among various members of the company and specifically at operational level.

The culture of the organisation should be accounted for, and these systems should find adaptability with the culture of the organisation. The managers at this level of product, geographic, and functional areas develop annual objective and short-term strategies. The strategies are designed in each area of research and development, finance and accounting, marketing and human relations etc. The responsibilities also include integrating among administrative systems and organisational structure and strategic and operational modes and seek for congruency between managerial infrastructure and the corporate culture

Unit IV Situation Specific Strategies for Global Strategic Management Mcom Sem 3 Delhi University

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