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Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management Mcom sem 2 Delhi University


Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management Mcom sem 2 Delhi University

Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management MCOM sem 2 Delhi University:- we will provide complete details of Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management MCOM sem 2 Delhi University in this article.

Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management Mcom sem 2 Delhi University

Promotion Decisions are the last of the 4 Ps because they are dependent upon the preceding 3 Ps. Product, Price, and Place will all define the parameters for the Promotion Decisions.

The product quality, brand, warranty, and service all make a statement about the image of the product. Image or perception of the offering is important when considering promotion alternatives.

Pricing, whether it is high priced or low priced, also makes a statement that needs to be incorporated into promotional considerations.

Place or channel of distribution also is an indicator of promotional tactics. Whether your product is sold in a high end retail outlet or a low priced discounter will affect how the promotional program needs to be developed. 

The promotional program needs to reflect and reinforce the unique characteristics of the product, it’s pricing, and the channel of distribution. The 4 Ps are called the “marketing mix” because they are interconnected and need to work in harmony rather than in conflict for the offering to be successful. The whole offering must be congruent, it has to make sense to the end consumer or it will not work.

Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management Mcom sem 2 Delhi University

Products or services will not sell unless people are told about them. It is true that few companies from developing countries are global in operation, so much of the promotion process is limited to either third party advertising (for example the Dutch advertising Kenya grown flowers) or taking part in international exhibitions (for example the Zimbabwe International Trade Fair in Bulawayo). As many primary products of developing countries become the end products of developed countries, most promotion is limited to mentions of origin in developed country promotion.

Nonetheless, the rules still apply for effective promotion, whether it is of limited or more extensive nature.

Most basic marketing textbooks cover the “ground” rules for effective advertising and promotion and so the reader is referred to these rather than repeat these again here. It is usual to distinguish between “advertising ” and “promotion”. Advertising is defined as:

“Any form of communication in the paid media”.

Promotion, on the other hand, is defined as:

“An incentive, usually at the point of sale, intended to enhance the intrinsic value of a product or service”.

Other expressions in common use are “above the line” and “below the line”, the line being an imaginary one, defining the boundary between promotion from the retailer to consumer and the other from manufacturer to retailer.

Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management Mcom sem 2 Delhi University:-The nature of global promotion

Generally advertising is used primarily for low cost, mass volume consumer products. Products like fertilizers, canned and fresh produce and tobacco – all products which are used by end consumers – are the subject of heavy promotion. In intermediate products like timber, leather and cotton the advertising may be more limited in nature due to the fewer end purchasers of the raw material. Until recently, per capita GNP and advertising were directly correlated, due to the more widespread availability of media and higher incomes, giving a larger potential market for products. This is no longer the case. Optimal levels of advertising occur where the advertising/sales overseas effect is equal to the marginal advertising expenditure. The problem is in estimating the levels of each.

Global expenditure on advertising is believed to be more than US$ 200 billion, with the US the largest spender and Japan next. Individual companies like General Motors and IBM are each spending billions on advertising per annum. Worldwide, although less in Africa, the average advertising expenditure as a percentage of GNP is around 1.4% The major expenditure is on the television medic, the USA spending over US$ 30 billion on this medium. In many African countries radio is widely used, especially where television is not available, as in Malawi. Global programmes like CNN news and MNet television have dramatically increased the global advertising and direct selling possibilities via satellite. Print advertising continues to be a major medium in Africa.

Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management Mcom sem 2 Delhi University:-Global promotion

When organisations advertise across international boundaries a number of important factors have to be taken into consideration. Whilst the process is ostensibly straightforward, (that is someone (seller) says something (message) to someone (buyer) through a medium) the process is compounded by certain factors. These are illustrated in figure 11.1.

These mitigating factors can be called “noise” and have an effect on the decision to “extend”, “adapt” or “create” new messages.

Language differences may mean that straight translation is not enough when it comes to message design. Advertising may also play different roles within developed, between developed and underdeveloped and within underdeveloped countries. In developing countries “education” and “information” may be paramount objectives. In developed countries, the objectives may be more persuasive.

Cultural differences may account for the greatest challenge. However, many, notably Elinder (1961)1 challenged the need to adapt messages and images, as he argued that consumer differences between countries are diminishing. Changes may be needed only in translation. However, this is only one point of view, as there is no doubt that cultural differences do exist across the world. For example, it would be quite unacceptable to have swimsuited ladies advertising sun care products in Moslem countries.

Three major difficulties occur in attempting to communicate internationally: the message may not get through to the intended recipient, due to a lack of media knowledge; the message may get through but not be understood, due to lack of audience understanding and: the message may get through, be understood but not provoke action. This may be due to lack of cultural understanding.

Media availability is a mitigating factor. Take for example, television. Whilst in Africa a number of countries do have it, the extent of its use and time available may be limited. Media use and availability, coupled with the type of message which may or may not be used, is tied to government control. Government may ban types of advertising, as is the case of cigarettes on British television. Intending advertisers should refer to the appropriate codes of advertising practice available in each country.

Unit IV Promotion Decisions for Marketing Management MCOM sem 2 Delhi University

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