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Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Notes

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :  Here Cakart.in website team members provide direct download links forUnit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University notes in pdf format. Download these Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Notes in pdf format and read well.

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Notes

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :  Group decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them. The decision is then no longer attributable to any single individual who is a member of the group. This is because all the individuals and social group processes such as social influence contribute to the outcome. The decisions made by groups are often different from those made by individuals. Group polarization is one clear example: groups tend to make decisions that are more extreme than those of its individual members, in the direction of the individual inclinations.

There is much debate as to whether this difference results in decisions that are better or worse. According to the idea of synergy, decisions made collectively tend to be more effective than decisions made by a single individual. However, there are also examples where the decisions made by a group are flawed, such as the Bay of Pigs invasion, the incident on which the group think model of group decision-making is based.

Factors that impact other social group behaviors also affect group decisions. For example, groups high in cohesion, in combination with other antecedent conditions (e.g. ideological homogeneity and insulation from dissenting opinions) have been noted to have a negative effect on group decision-making and hence on group effectiveness. Moreover, when individuals make decisions as part of a group, there is a tendency to exhibit a bias towards discussing shared information (i.e. shared information bias), as opposed to unshared information.

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Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Notes

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Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University : Advances in computing and telecommunications technology are changing how people can meet and make group decisions. Technological changes help people cross physical, social, and psychological boundaries, and have secondary effects on group behavior and decision making. Experiments show that, compared with a face-to-face meeting, a computer-mediated discussion leads to delays; more explicit and outspoken advocacy; “flaming;” more equal participation among group members; and more extreme, unconventional, or risky decisions. Technological and social psychological variables that cause these effects in laboratory groups do not scale at equal rates. Technological change in organizational group decision making can lead to outcomes not seen in the laboratory, which makes it essential to do field research. Three phenomena observed in field studies are redistribution of work time, relative advantages in participation for peripheral workers, and increases in complexity of group organization. Experimental and field studies on these technology effects are useful not just as an “impact statement” for those considering technological change; this research also can put a new light on basic processes in which we have always had an interest.

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Notes

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :  Decisions may be made by a single leader, a committee or a large group of people, depending on the nature of the organization. Each of these models is more or less appropriate depending on the nature of the decision and the context in which it is being made. When communication is thorough and accurate, decisions tend to be more informed and effective.

Acceptance

Communication is improved when everyone in the decision-making process feels that her contribution is being respected. In a harsh or judgmental environment, some people will not communicate their thoughts and feelings because they fear negative reactions or repercussions. A group environment of acceptance leads to more comprehensive input from all stakeholders, which in turn leads to better communications and decisions that take all aspects of the situation into account.

Authority

Some authoritarian organizations are characterized by one-way, top-down communication. This form of communication leads to decisions that reflect the knowledge and priorities of the upper echelons of the organizations. This isn’t necessarily a problem in an organization where the leaders’ wishes are the only ones that matter, for example in the military. In other organizations where members expect to be enfranchised, this type of communication style can be problematic and lead to tensions within the organization and delayed or faulty decision-making.

Cooperation

Cooperative communication involves an equal exchange of ideas between engaged parties in a decision. While this process can take longer than an authoritarian one and can be unwieldy, it can also result in decisions acceptable to everyone involved because the decisions are made by everyone equally. When opinions and inputs are solicited from an entire group on an equal basis, the resulting decision can be a consensual synthesis of individual preferences. While each individual may not get exactly what she wants, the resulting decision will be close enough to each person’s ideal to be acceptable to the group as a whole.

Secrecy

Secrecy is the opposite of communication. It involves the willful withholding of information from other parties. Secrecy is necessary and even beneficial in some situations, but the people holding the secrets should be aware of the impact of secrecy on decision-making. Individuals not aware of some information can’t be expected to make decisions based on that information. Secrecy is most common in authoritarian institutions where all decisions are made by a small group of leaders. In these situations, the input of followers isn’t sought because they are not stakeholders in the decision-making process.

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Notes

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :  Group decision making (also known as collaborative decision making) is when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them. Such decisions are not attributable to any single individual, but to the group as a whole. By definition, group decisions are participatory, and often a member’s contribution is directly proportional to the degree to which a particular decision would affect him or her. Group decisions are subject to factors such as social influence, including peer pressure, and group dynamics. These social elements can affect the process by which decisions are reached and the decision outcomes themselves. A group can make decisions by consensus, in which all members come to agreement, or it may take a majority-rules approach and select the alternative favored by most members.

Advantages of Group Decision Making

Group decision making provides two advantages over decisions made by individuals: synergy and sharing of information. Synergy is the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. When a group makes a decision collectively, its judgment can be keener than that of any of its members. Through discussion, questioning, and collaboration, group members can identify more complete and robust solutions and recommendations.

The sharing of information among group members is another advantage of the group decision-making process. Group decisions take into account a broader scope of information since each group member may contribute unique information and expertise. Sharing information can increase understanding, clarify issues, and facilitate movement toward a collective decision.

Disadvantages of Group Decision Making

Diffusion of Responsibility

One possible disadvantage of group decision making is that it can create a diffusion of responsibility that results in a lack of accountability for outcomes. In a sense, if everyone is responsible for a decision, then no one is. Moreover, group decisions can make it easier for members to deny personal responsibility and blame others for bad decisions.

Lower Efficiency

Group decisions can also be less efficient than those made by an individual. Group decisions can take additional time because there is the requirement of participation, discussion, and coordination among group members. Without good facilitation and structure, meetings can get bogged down in trivial details that may matter a lot to one person but not to the others.

Groupthink

One of the greatest inhibitors of effective group decision making is groupthink. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity results in an irrational or dysfunctionaldecision-making outcome. By isolating themselves from outside influences and actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints in the interest of minimizing conflict, group members reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints.

Loyalty to the group requires individuals to avoid raising controversial issues or alternative solutions, and there is a loss of individual creativity, uniqueness, and independent thinking. The dysfunctional group dynamics of the in-group produces an illusion of invulnerability (an inflated certainty that the right decision has been made). Thus the in-group significantly overrates its own decision-making abilities and significantly underrates the abilities of its opponents (the out-group). Furthermore, groupthink can produce dehumanizing actions against the out-group.

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Notes

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :  Effective communication is critical to any organization and can help it in many ways. In fact, communication plays a role in product development, customer relations, employee management – virtually every facet of a business’ operations. Employees are a key audience because they often serve as the conduit to other audiences. If employees are informed and engaged, communications with other constituencies are likely to be strong as well.

Clear Expectations

Effective communications help to establish clear expectations for employees and, perhaps surprisingly, for customers as well. For employees, clear expectations will convey how their performance will impact the company and give them an indication of what they need to do to achieve positive feedback. For customers, clear communication can help manage their expectations about service issues or even about how best to interact with the organization.

Strong Relationships

Effective communication builds strong relationships. Trust and loyalty are key factors in any relationship and both are boosted by communication that is focused on meeting individual needs, conveying important information and providing feedback – positive and constructive. Strong relationships with external audiences also build strong solid communication about products, services and company culture and values.

Ideas and Innovation

Open channels of communication can lead to new ideas and innovation in a number of areas. Employees that understand what’s important to their companies can focus on making improvements and spotting opportunities for innovation that can help further success. When employees know their ideas will be sought after, that company leaders will have open minds and be responsive to their feedback, they’re more likely to contribute their ideas. Customers also can be a source of great ideas to help improve products and services.

Customer Ambassadors

The more employees know about the company, its culture, its products and services, and its response to any negative issues, the better job they can do of serving as ambassadors to the community, their friends, relatives and other business connections. Employees who feel they have a strong, positive relationship with their employers and trust the information they receive from their employers will be more likely to share that information with others. Employees can be a highly valued and trusted source of information about a company and its products and services.

Strong Teamwork

Effective organizational communication will lead to strong teamwork and the ability for employees at all levels of the organization to work together to achieve company goals. In addition, effective organizational communication will provide employees the knowledge, structure and positive work environment they need to feel comfortable dealing with conflict and resolving issues effectively.

Unit II Group Decision Making And Communication For Organisational Theory And Behavior MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Notes

Preparing for MCom? - Must read below
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