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Types of Sentences CA Foundation notes

Types of Sentences – CA Foundation, CPT notes, PDF

This article is about Types of Sentences- BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTING for CA foundation CPT students. we also provide PDF file at the end.

Types of sentences

Types of Sentences

What we will study in this chapter:

 

 

 

CHAPTER
2Sentence Types Direct-Indirect,
Active – Passive Speech

2003 – Nov [1] (c) Comment on the following statement in about 30 words each:

(i) Written communication has a longer life than oral communication.

(1 mark)

(ii) Grapevine communication has its own utility in disseminating

information. /                                                                                                                 (1 mark)

(iii) Information overload is as bad as information gap.                                              (1 mark)

(iv) Feedback enhances the effectiveness of communication. Comment.

(1 mark)

(v) Paralanguage is not very reliable.                                                                          (1 mark)

(vi) Face to face communication is sometimes better than written

communication.                                                                                                            (1 mark)

(vii) While communicating with the subordinates, a manager should

maintain distance. ‘                                                                                                      (1 mark)

Answer:

(i) Written communication has a longer life than oral communication: A written communication acts as a permanent record for the communication. A person can return back to the subject in the case of the written communication but in case of oral communication a person cannot come back to the same situation. Fie has no proof of the said words.

(ii) Grapevine communication has its own utility in disseminating information: Grapevine communication can be used in disseminating the information on a temporary basis for knowing the reaction of the people in the organization. Therefore, it has got its own utility and is not waste or useless.

(iii) Information overload is as bad as information gap: It is said that excess of everything is bad. Confusion develops where there are excess information. There is a lot of difficulty in managing the information. It is difficult rather say impossible to segregate the relevant and more important information from the irrelevant one.

(iv) Feedback enhances the effectiveness of communication: One

of the basic need of effective communication is that it should be two ways. It should be in such a way which is easily understandable. The initiator should be able to communicate what he wants to do and the listener should be able to understand what the initiator wants to make him understand. Unless the feedback is obtained from the listener, the initiator cannot judge whether his communication is complete and effective.

(v) Paralanguage is not very reliable: Paralanguage is not very reliable because a large number of signs and signals are used. It is very difficult to achieve uniformity. Extra-care is required to come to the exact content of the language.

(vi) Face to face communication is some times better than written communication: Because the gestures and expression of a person sometimes depicts more than the written words. Time and money both are saved in face to face communication which is not possible in written communication. Facial expression makes the communication effective and efficient.

(vii) While communicating with the subordinates a manager should not maintain distance. Infact, he should adopt an open door policy and maintain a friendly relation with his subordinate. This will enable free flow of information and help him to motivate his subordinates.

2003 – Nov [2] {C} (a) Explain briefly the process of communication.

(7 marks)

Answer:

The process of communication is the inter-relationship between several interdependent components. It consists of a chain of related actions and reactions which together result in exchange of information. In order to understand the process of communication, it is necessary to describe each of these components.

A model of communication process is as follows

The Process of Communication

  1. Sender: The sender is the first component of the process of communication. The sender may be a speaker, a writer or any other person. He is the one who has a message and wants it to share it for some purpose.
  2. Ideation : Ideation is the preliminary step in communication where sender creates an idea to communicate. This idea is the content and basis of the message to be communicated. Several ideas may generate in the sender’s mind. The sender must identify, analyse and arrange the ideas sequentially before transmitting them to the receiver.
  3. Message: Message is the heart of communication. It is what the sender wants to convey to the receiver. It may be verbal i.e. written or spoken or non verbal i.e. body language, space language etc.
  4. Encoding :To encode is to put the idea into words. In this step the communicator organises his ideas into a series of symbols or words which will be communicated to the intended receiver. Thus the ideas are converted into words or symbols. The words and the symbols should be selected carefully. It should be according to the purpose of communication. It should be understandable and most of all it should be suitable for transmission and reception.
  5. Transmission : Next in the process of communication is transmission of the message as encoded messages are transmitted through various media and channels of communication channel connects the sender and

the receiver. The channel and media should be selected keeping in mind the requirement of the receiver, the communication to be effective and efficient the channel should be appropriate.

  1. Receiver : Receiver is the person or group for whom the message is meant. He may be a listener, a reader or a viewer. Any neglect on the part of the receiver may make the communication ineffective. Receiver is thus the ultimate destination of the message. If the message does not reach the receiver the communication is said to be incomplete.
  2. Decoding : Decoding means translation of symbols encoded by the sender into ideas for understanding. Understanding the message by receiver is the key to the decoding process. The message should be accurately reproduced in the receiver’s mind. If the receiver is unable to understand the message correctly the communication is ineffective.
  3. Behaviour of the Receiver: It refers to the response by the receiver of the communication received from the sender. He may like to ignore the message or to store the information received or to perform the task assigned by the sender. Thus communication is complete as soon as the receiver responds.
  4. Feedback: Feedback indicates the result of communication. It is the key element in the communication and is the only way of judging the effectiveness of communication It enables the sender to know whether his message has been properly interpreted or not. Systematic use of feedback helps to improve future messages. Feedback, like the message could be oral, written or non verbal. It has to be collected from the receiver.

2004 – May [1] (c) Comment on the following statement in about 30 words

each.

(i) Decoding is • necessary for interpretation and understanding of

message. • (1 mqrk)

(ii)  Grapevine encourage rumour mongering.                                                            (1 mark)

(iii)  Verbal communication can be both oral and written.                                           (1 mark)

(iv) People communicate more through body language than words.

(1 mark)

(v) Proxemics is the study of space language.                                                            (1 mark)

(vi) Feedback makes communication a two way process.                                          (1 mark)

(vii) Using verbs in active voice makes communication more effective.

(1 mark)

(viii) Written communication can be preserved in sharp contrast to oral

communication.                                                                                                            (1 mark)

Answer:

(i) Decoding is necessary for interpretation and understanding of message: Decoding means converting the symbols encoded by the sender into ideas Tor understanding. When the message reaches the receiver, it cannot be assured, that he understands it in the same sense as the sender expects him to understand. Therefore, he must decode it draw the interpretation although, decoding may not always be accurate, as every receiver will interpret the message according to his own perception.

(ii) Grapevine encourages rumour mongering: In the grapevine chain, there is communication either from one to another and from another to the other or a person passes on the information to everyone. Since such a communication exchanges many ears and mouths, this leads to rumour mongering.

(iii) Verbal communication can be both oral and written: Verbal means relating to words and the use of the words. These words may be spoken or written. When words are communicated by means of speech, it is called oral communication and when the same is given a permanent effect by means of written down notes, it is called a written communication.

(iv) People communicate more through body language than words:

It is true that people communicate more through body language than words because the movement in our body express our inner feelings and thoughts. These movements knowingly or unknowingly conveys messages which can be easily understood by the keen observer. Experts have found the following breakup any communication. Verbal communication -7%, Body movement -55%, Voice, tone, pitch -38%.

(v) Proxemics is the study of space language: The communication is done with the space around it is called ‘space language.’ This type of communication is related to the distance which is maintained between the two involved in communication and this distance is called proximity. Therefore, it becomes true that proxemics is the study of space language, where the effectiveness of communication depends

. upon the distance maintained, which also shows the degree of closeness between the person communicating and to whom communication is made.

(vi) Feedback makes communication a two-way process: The

message conveyed by the communicator always gets a response from the receiver in return. This is called ‘feedback’ which may be verbal or non-verbal. As in this process, both the sender and the receiver are involved, it can be said to be a two way process.

(vii) Using verbs in active voice make communication more effective: Verbs in active voice are the strongest part of the speech as they emphasise on any situation much more than passive voice. Therefore, to make communication more effective verbs in active voice should be frequently used.

(viii) Written communication can be preserved in sharp contrast to oral communication: Written communication is a permanent record, unless it is destroyed. Words spoken may be forgotten over a period of time but written communication can be preserved over year together being of permanent nature.

2004 – May [2] (c) Explain how the following contributes towards effective

communication:

(i) Politeness.

(ii) Clarity of purpose.

(iii) Feedback.

(iv) Attentive listening.

(v) Control on emotions. (10 marks)

Answer:

(i) Politeness : Politeness begets politeness. Polite manners facilitate smooth communication. It encourages participative communication. Irritating expressions should be avoided. Favours should be thanked generously while omissions should be apologised profusely. Empathic communication will ensure politeness in communication.

(ii) Clarity of Purpose : Good communication never ‘happens’, but is a result of careful and systematic planning. All communication begins with a message. The message should be as clear as possible. The principle of clarity implies both clarity of thought and clarity of expression. Clarity of thought means that the sender must be clear about what, why, when, to whom and how he wants to communicate. Clarity of expression means that the sender must encode the message with appropriate words so that the message is understood by the receiver.

(iii) Use of Feedback : Communication is complete only when the receiver has understood the message. Whether he has understood the message or not is evident from the feed back received from him. Feed back is thus an important element of communication. It should be used carefully in planning and executing communication. In face to face communication it is easy to get feedback. In all other cases the sender should ask questions, request reply and encourage the sender to send in feed back.

(iv) Listening : Communication is the joint responsibility of the sender and receiver. Active listening is essential for success in communication. Communication cannot be effective without proper listening. The receiver should be attentive and receptive because poor listening defeats the very purpose of communication. For complete success of communication participative listening is essential.

(v) Controlling of Emotions : Self control is essential in effective communication. The communicator should be impartial while encoding and sending the message. He should not allow his emotions, attitudes or bias to distort the message. Similarly the receiver should receive the message without allowing his emotion and prejudices to distort the message.

2004 – June [3] Explain the following statements:

(i) “90% of the problems in a business organisation are caused by

ineffective communication.”                                                                                       (8 marks)

(ii) ‘‘Nothing moves unless a piece of paper moves.”                                                (7 marks)

Answer:

(i) Explain the following: 90% of the problems in a business org. are caused by ineffective communication.

It is correct to say, that in any organization almost all the problems are caused by ineffective communication.

Members working in any organization possess the same goal share, same targets have similar objectives should act as a cohesive unit, striving hard to achieve success. No goal, No target, No objective can be achieved if all members of the team are working in different directions without a purpose.

A well-knit team requires frequent interaction among its members and also a well developed hastle-free communicalion network.

An effective communication is needed by an organization to fulfill its dream and attain its predetermined objectives. An effective and efficient leader is that, which is able to communicate his desires and dreams to all his team members as and when he requires.

A successful organization also requires members who are able to sink their individual interests willingly and are ready to put in their very best in the interest of the organization as whole.

(ii) The above statement ‘Nothing moves unless a piece of paper moves, is correct in respect to such organizations which are not ready to accept the challenges of the rapid changing environment. They adopt only old traditional form of work culture and pay much emphasis on only written work.

For example, if in such organisation, for even a minor job of getting a fan repaired of a canteen one may need to put up a note, get the approval from his boss, invite sealed quotations, open them in front of committee appointed, and award the contract to the lowest bidder. After the completion of job, repairs to be certified, bill to be presented, sanctioned by the authority appointed and provide the necessary documents to the accounts department for preparing the cheque. Finally, the cheque is given to the legal recipient with a covering letter accompanying it.

An ineffective leader is one who is unable to communicate, or falls to present the goals before his team. This instruction may not be understood by his team for lack of’completeness or clarity.

Lack of valuable feedback mechanism or in between corrections in its working strategy by any leader often lands the organization with improper results and with goals not achieved.

Limited vocabulary, restricted means of communication, often provides the members of the team in the organization – a failure to achieve their tasks. Non attentive listening on the part of subordinates often results into-no communication with improper results.

Some times, lack of trust among the subordinates in their superiors force them to conceal the facts and they may misinform in order to suppress personal failures.

Thus, to achieve the objectives defined, the workers in any organization should develop and sustain in, an effective communication network.

Written documents also serve the purpose of record for future. Such records also prevent fraudulent practices and restrict the concentration of power in the hands of very few.

Everything, expressed in writing requires plentiful time and therefore, it causes delays and involves additional expenditure.

Even today, where computerisation has minimised paperwork but still the insistence of furnishing hard copies also proves that nothing moves unless a piece of paper moves.

2004 – Nov [1] (c) Comment on the following statements in about 30 words each-

(i) Kinesics is the study of body movements.                                                              (1 mark)

(ii) No oral communication can be effective without proper listening.

(1 mark)

(iii)  Written communication is a creative activity.                                                       (1 mark)

(iv)  Face is the Index of the mind.                                                                               (1 mark)

(v) Para language is close to verbal communication.                                                  (1 mark)

(Vi) Eye contact is of paramount importance in face to face communication.            (1 mark)

(vii) Anger is the worst enemy of communication.                                                       (1 mark)

Answer:

(i) Kinesics is the study of body movements: Which involves study of face and eyes, body structure, appearance. This study is important because these send out communicative signals knowingly and unknowingly.

(ii) No Oral Communication can be effective without proper listing:

The statement is true. Listing is an essential part of verbal communication. The listener should be active alternative and receptive because poor listening defeats the very purpose of communication listening is a deliberate effort and involves much more than learning.

(iii) Written communication is a creative activity: Written

communication is not that spontaneous as that of oral communication. The communicator has time to put his imagination into words. Thus, written communication is a creative activity. It requires a lot of imagination and continuous effort.

(iv) Face is the index of mind: Face is the media which reflects our feelings and emotions. Thus, face is an important tool of body language. Every part of the face be it eyes or eyebrows, lips, nose expresses thoughts in mind. Face reveals both – the type and intensity of feeling.

(v) Para language is close to verbal communication: Para language is like language. It is not exactly verbal because it does not involve words but it is very close to verbal because the voice modulation, way of speaking etc. which are tools of para language convey much more than words. Without it words do not convey their intended meanings.

(vi) Eye contents is of paramount importance in face to face communication: Eyes speak about the characteristics of a person. It also expresses the emotions like anger, fear, adamant, nervousness etc. Thus, eye contact is necessary in face to face communication to know about the person in contact.

(vii) Anger interrupts the flow of communication. When a person is angry he looses his self control and pours out words which mars the very purpose of communication. It also creates a barrier between the communicator and the listener.

2004 – Nov [2] {C} (a) How can a message be conveyed more effectively

through voice?                                                                                                            (5 marks)

Answer:

Voice is the most important element of para language. It plays an important role in communication. It is the first tool of effective communication. It conveys the message in a very effective way. A message can be conveyed more effectively through voice by considering the following points:

  1. Variation of pitch : Pitch means quality of sound. In order to break the monotony of the speech, variation of pitch is essential. Variation of pitch is also necessary to keep the listener interested in the speech which is the very essence of communication.
  2. Variation of volume : Variation of volume puts life into one’s speech. Variation of volume should be done according to the size of audience. The volume should be such which makes the speaker audible.
  3. Speed of speaking : Different part of the message should be spoken at different speed. Generally, the part easily understandable can be spoken at a high speed while parts difficult to understand should be spoken in a slow speed. The speed thus, should be such which ensures fluency.
  4. Pause : Pause is essential. One cannot go on sp’eaking continuously. But a pause should be used effectively. It should be used at right time which not only give the speaker a time to breathe, but also gains the listener’s attention.
  5. Non-Fluencies : Non-fluencies ‘up’ am, you know etc. if used carefully and sparingly add to the fluency of the speaker, giving him time to breathe and making the listener more alert.

2005 – May [1] Comment on the following:

(i) Social responsibility of business adds to the importance of communication.

(ii) Upstream communication means democratisation of a firm.

(iii) Grapevine provides psychological satisfaction to employees.

(iv) Verbal communication can be either oral or written.

(v) Silence is a means of communication.

(vi) Verbal communication may lead to semantic problems.

(vii) Filtering means manipulation of information.                                               (1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) Communication is the life blood of business. Every business has a social responsibility towards the customers, government, suppliers and public. In order that business generate goodwill and proper image effective communication is essential.

(ii) Upstream communication refers to the flow of information from the lower level i.e. subordinates to the upper level is superiors. Activity report, suggestion, grievances, recommendations are the media of upstream communication. Since it involves all the employees, it pavbs way for the democratisation of the firm.

(iii) Informal communication is known as grapevine. It arises because of the desire of the people to communicate without following the formal channels of communication. It draws the employees closer to each other and builds up a co-ordial relationship. It thus, provides psychological satisfaction to employees.

(iv) Verbal means relating to words and the use of the words. These words may be spoken or written. When words are communicated by means of speech, it is called oral communication and when the same is given a permanent effect by means of written down notes, it is called a written communication.

(v) Silence is an effective tool of communication. It shows both positive as well as negative response. It however, depends on the observer to interpret the silence through the attitude of the silence communicator.

(vi) Semantic problem arises from the disadvantages of the symbolic system and meaning of words. Verbal communication uses words which can be interpreted in different way. Due to different interpretation by the sender and receiver the semantic problem arises.

(vii) Filtering means to remove. Filtering of message means to remove or screen the message in such a way that only relevant part is communicated. However, during the process of filtering there is every possibility that the sender manipulates the message according to his suitability.

2005 – May [2] (i) “Listening is the key ingredient of effective communication”. Comment. (5 marks)

Answer:

Communication cannot be effective without proper listening. Listening is an essential part of verbal communication. The listener should be attentive and receptive because poor listening defeats the very purpose of communication. Listening is a deliberate effort and involves much more than hearing. Listening depends upon the listener, the purpose and the contact. On the basis of the above listening can be classified as

  1. Discriminative listening
  2. Evaluative listening
  3. Appreciative listening
  4. Empathic listening.
  5. Discriminative Listening : When the listener discriminates i.e. differentiates between different parts of the message he listens, it is called discriminative listening. For,example, while listening to a subordinates grievances he differentiates between the important and non-important part. The important part is taken seriously and the non- important part is ignored or set aside. Discriminative listening is also called Content Listening.
  6. Evaluative listening : When the listener tries to understand and evaluate the meaning of the message on several grounds such as the logic of argument, the strength of evidence, the validity of the conclusion, the implication of the message, the speakers intentions and motives it is called evaluative listening. Evaluative listening generally involves interactions as the listener may disagree with the speaker. For example, when the sales manager presents sales projections for the next few months, the production manager listens critically, evaluating whether the estimates are valid and about the implications on the production department.
  7. Appreciative listening : When the listener appreciates the speaker while he is speaking it is called appreciative listening. An appreciative listener, through words or body language, shows the speaker that he agrees with him, and thus appreciates and supports him. This kind of listening enhances the confidence of the speakerand boosts his morale.
  8. Empathic Listening : When the listener puts himself in the position of the speaker and understands his feelings, needs and wants it is called empathic listening. By listening in an empathic way, the listener help the speaker vent the pent up emotions. Such listening develops healthy human relations.

2005 – Nov [1] (c) Comment on the following statements in about 30 words

each:

(i) The process of communication begins with a sender.                                            (1 mark)

(ii) Diagonal communication takes place between people working at

different levels.                                                                                                             (1 mark)

(iii) Written communication is a time consuming activity.                                            (1 mark)

(iv) Empathic listening is good for healthy human relations.                                       (1 mark)

(v) Too frequent pauses do spoil the speech.                                                              (1 mark)

(vi) Our surrounding environment speaks its own language.                                      (1 mark)

(vii) The face is the index of the mind.                                                                         (1 mark)

Answer:

(i) According to Keith Davis, Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. Thus, the process of communication begins when the sender feels the need for it and the idea generates ‘in his mind. The sender is thus the source of message and it is very correct to say that the process of communication begins with a sender.

(ii) Diagonal communication takes place when persons working at a lower level interact with those working at a higher level across the limits of their reporting authority. It cuts across the departmental lines and information flows between people who are neither in the same department nor on the same level of organization structure.

(iii) Written communication is indispensable to an organisation. However, it suffers from one disadvantage and that is time factor. Written communication takes time to organise a message, to write and to send the mail or post. It is a time consuming activity and is therefore not suitable when the message is to be sent immediately.

(tv) When the listener puts himself in the position of the speaker it is called empathic listening. Empathic listening develops healthy human relations as an efficient manager allows the speaker to vent out his pent up emotions and show his feelings.

(v) In a speech pause is essential. One cannot go on speaking continuously. A pause however should be used effectively. It should be used as a right time to gain the listeners attention. However, too frequent pause spoils a speech as the listener begins to loose interest.

(vi) Our surrounding or physical environment speaks its own language which is non verbal form of language. We interpret this language through our sensory perceptions. Two important aspects of this language is colour and layout.

(vii) Face is the media which reflects our feelings arid emotions. Thus face is an important tool of body language. Every part of the face be it eyes or eyebrows, lips, nose expresses thoughts in mind. Face reveals both – the type and intensity of feeling.

2005 – Nov [2] (c) (i) What are the socio-psychological barriers to communication? (5 marks)

Answer:

Communication to be effective should be free of barriers which obstruct the free flow of communication. Social and psychological factors are the most difficult barriers to communication.

These consist of the following:

  1. Attitude and opinions : The personal attitude and opinions of the receiver often interfere with communication. If the message is consistent with the receiver’s attitude and opinion they receive it favourably. When the message is inconsistent with the receivers attitude and opinions, they are not likely to be received favourably.
  2. Emotions : Emotions like fear, anger, worry, nervousness block the mind. It also biurs the thinking power and one fails to organise the message properly. When the message is not organised properly, it cannot be conveyed effectively.
  3. Status difference : Status consciousness is a ve.y serious barrier. Subordinates fail to communicate to with their superiors because either they are too conscious of their low status or too afraid of being snubbed off. Similarly, many executives keep distance from their subordinates thinking it too degrading to consult them.
  4. In attention : In attention arises due to mental preoccupations or distractions. These causes barriers to communication.
  5. Closed mind : A person with closed mind is not willing to listen and is not prepared to reconsider his opinion. As such it is very difficult to communicate with such person.
  6. Distrust : Distrust after fails to deliver the” right message. When the receiver is biased or hostile towards the sender the message is either ignored or misinterpreted.
  7. Poor retention : Successive transmission of the message are decreasingly accurate. In the process of transmission a part of the message is lost at every stage. This is because of poor retention on the part of the receiver. Thus incomplete message is conveyed.
  8. Premature evaluation : Premature evaluation prevents effective communication. Some people form a judgement even before receiving the complete message. And once judgement is already formed the mind is closed to the rest of the message.

2006 – May [1] (c) Comment on the following statements in about 30 words

each :

table to hold your hand or envelops you in a hug.                                                       (1 mark)

(ii) Your reaching office in time and completion of task within a specific

time span does not communicate anything.                                                                (1 mark)

(iii)  Proxemics explains kind of human relationships.                                                (1 mark)

(iv)  Listening is antonym of hearing.                                                                           (1 mark)

(v) Communication is culture-bound.                                                                           (1 mark)

(i) You glow when someone puts an arm around you, reaches across the

(vi) Diagonal communication, though practicable, has some limitations.

(1 mark)

(vii) You reach office late by ten minutes. Your boss first looks at you and

then th© wall clock. But he utters no word.                                                                  (1 mark)

(viii) Decoding may not always be accurate.                                                               (1 mark)

Answer:

Comment:

(i) Human beings communicate in many ways other than through words. Words, very often fail to convey the exact meaning. Thus, non-verbal signals mutually understood by the sender and receiver are used. The space around the sen er and receiver communicates too which is called Proxemics’. Thus ‘,rte glows when someone puts an arm around, reaches across the table to hold the hand or envelops in a hug. Here a close contact is maintained and is the intimate space language.

(ii) Reaching office in time and completion of task within a specific time span does communicate. It communicates the importance of time. This

1 non-verbal communication is called, Time Language. Time pervades our thinking and dominates our communication. Under time language, people communicate with each other in terms of time by showing them in a very sophisticated way, the worth of time.

(iii) Proxemics is the study of how we communicate within the space around us. For this the distance between the sender and receiver is demarcated. The distance between the receiver and the sender while communicating speaks about the relationship between them. It is intimate if the distance between them is physical contact to18 inches. It is personal if the distance between them is 18 inches to 4 feet. Thus, proxemics do explain kind of human relationships.

(iv) Listening is a deliberate effort. It is not same as hearing. While hearing one has to make no effort. But for listening one has to train ones ears and ask themselves as to why he wants to listen, Again, while listening one has to discriminate, evaluate, appreciate and react as well which is not required in hearing.

(v) Communication is culture bound. One has to be very careful in choice of words so as to not to offend the receiver who may be having a very different cultural background. Cultural difference very often come up as communication barrier. The same words, phrases, symbols etc. may mean different things to different people of different cultural background.

(vi) Diagonal communication, though practicable has some limitations. They are:

(i) Anarchy – which takes place in the absence of well accepted procedures for diagonal communication.

(ii) Resistance by managers when not consulted.

(iii) It violates the principle of unity of command and thus causes conflicts and confusion.

(vii) Human body and its various parts play an important role in communication. The boss although has not uttered any words but by his body language, i.e. gestures has conveyed very well that the person is late and he does not approve of it. This use of body language as a medium of communication is also known as kinesics’.

(viii) It is very true that decoding may not always be accurate. It depends on individual experiences. If the receiver is familiar with the codes  used by the sender and his perception is good, he will derive more or less the same meaning as meant by sender, otherwise not. Inaccurate decoding makes the communication ineffective.

2006 – May [2] {C} (b) 90% of the problems in any organisation are caused by ineffective communication. How ? (Give any five reasons)                                                                                           (5 marks)

Answer:

It is very true that 90% of the problems in any organisation are caused by ineffective communication. It is evident from the following:

(i) Unclear message: When the sender is not sure of what he wants to communicate, why he wants to do it, to whom he wants to communicate, his message can never be clear. This is more because a clear message can never be sent from unclear mind.. An unclear massage is likely to be decoded in different ways giving different meanings.

( i) Incomplete message: Incomplete messages keep the receiver guessing. This creates misunderstanding and often delays action.

(iii) Incorrect message: When incorrect message is communicated, wrong decisions are taken in light of incorrect message.

(iv) Absence of attention: Both the receiver and sender has to pay their full attention. Lack of attention leads to distortion of message giving out a different meaning.

(v) Noise: Ineffective communication also results from noise. Noise acts as a major barrier to communication. Noise distracts the persons and incorrect message is conveyed.

2006 – Nov [1] (c) Comment on the following statements in about 30 words each :

(i) Since true communication fulfills the readers’ needs as well as writer’s purpose, the writer needs to know something about his readers.

(1 mark)

(ii) Colours also communicate.                                                                                    (1 mark)

(iii)  A picture saves a thousand words.                                                                       (1 mark)

(iv)  Volume variation puts life into our speaking.                                                        (1 mark)

Answer:

(i) Before writing any message, the writer should be weil informed about the reader. Readers find ideas more interesting and appealing if they are expressed from the reader’s point of view. This makes the reader more receptive. For example: A letter answering a high school student’s request for information about a company would not be worded like a letter answering a similar request from a professional. Thus the writer should make an attempt to focus on relevant information about the reader’s age, background, values, opinions, needs of the reader etc. Then as a writer, one can easily transfer this understanding of the reader into written form through careful selection of content and effective organisation of the different parts of the message.

(ii) Colours have been used since long to convey meanings. There exists, what we may call a ‘colour language’. Different colours are associated with different attitude, behaviourial pattern and cultural background for example: White – stands for peace and chastity. Pink’, Red, Yellow, Blue-represent cheerfulness. Black, Gray is associated with sober mood and negative feelings.

Right choice of colours for our clothing, home and office interiors, decorations etc. helps in effective communication.

(iii) The importance of sign language is conveyed well by the Chinese proverb, ‘A picture is worth a thousand words’ This is so because we take much of our information- more than 50% through the gateway of our eyes. Since words fail to convey the exact meaning of the message, therefore pictures, drawings, sounds are often used to communicate messages.

(iv) An efficient speaker varies his volume while delivering his speech. Volume means loudness of voice. Volume variation puts life into one’s speech. However, the loudness of voice should be adjusted according to the size of the audience. While speaking, one should be loud enough to be audible but not too loud to put the audience off.

2006 – Nov [2] {C} (b) “To Communicate the written word has several advantages over the spoken word.” Explain.                                                                                                                       (5 marks)

Answer:

Written words has several added advantages over the spoken words:

(i) While written words provides a permanent record for future reference and serves as a good guide for decision making and planning in future, spoken words on the other hand may be forgotten over a period of time.

(ii) Written messages can be read and re-read again and again. Thus, it is likely to be understood better. However, oral messages are more likely to be misunderstood. The speaker due to his poor vocal expressions, may not be able to make himself clear and the listener may also be in- attentive.

(iii) People are more precise and clear cut when they write rather when they speak. This is because written communication is normally penned down after proper planning. While in oral communication very often, the exact message to be conveyed is lost in a mass of words.

(iv) Oral messages often gets distorted. This is more so in case of lengthy messages which when communicated through various level of hierarchy. Distortion of messages usually does not “take place in case where messages are conveyed through written words.

2007 – June [2] (a) What do you understand by the term ‘communication’? What are the main features of effective communication?                                                                                                         (5 marks)

Answer:

Communication is the expression and exchange of facts, opinions, ideas or feelings. Effective communication depends mainly on Understandable messages,

Credibility of the sender Message’s effect on the receiver,

An effective communication should possess the following features:-

Message should be clear in expression.

Message should be concise.

Message should provide complete information.

Message should be courteous to the recipient.

Message should have correct facts.

Message should possess, consideration for the receiver.

2007 – June [3] (d) Write a brief note on non-verbal communication.

(3 marks)

Answer:

Non-verbal communication is an unspoken or unwritten message that uses body language.

For e.g. Smiling at someone or along with is an oral communication.

Non verbal signs also play an equally important role. Facial expressions, entire body language, large gestures also form apart of non-verbal message.

Non-verbal communication includes:

  • Facial Expressions • Movement
  • Gestures • Eye Contact
  • Using Signs • Use of Space

2007 – Dec [2] (a) What guidelines should be followed while speaking and

listening on the telephone?                                                                                        (5 marks)

Answer:

The following guidelines should be followed while speaking and listening on the telephone:

Be clear and audible.

Do not shout or whisper.

Do not talk in-between while the person you are speaking to is still speaking. Do provide short cues?

Vary the tone of your voice.

Telephonic conversations to be kept short and to the point.

Do not eat, chew or drink anything while talking on the phone.

Never bang the phone, always put the receiver gently.

2008 – June [2] (a) Suggest any five methods to overcome barriers to

effective communication.                                                                                           (5 marks)

Answer:

Communication failures may be caused due to many reasons. The following are the methods of overcoming .barriers to effective communication.

(i) Lack of Planning : For better communication, proper planning is required. if any message is communicated without adequate planning, then the desired result may not be achieved.

(ii) False Assumptions: For better and effective communication both the sender and the receiver should understand the assumptions laid down in the communications process in the same way.

(iii) Ambiguity: Our intentions are only known to us. Any wrong inference drawn by the receiver for the communicated message results into a communication failure.

(iv) Distortions : Many communications do not register because the receiver is preoccupied with other things. While the sender believes that the message is being conveyed fully, and correctly, but the fact is that the receiver has not yet understood the messages at all. Such distortions should be avoided in order to have effective communication.

(vi) Lack of Trust: If there exist lack of trust among both the receiver and the sender, the communication is incomplete and therefore the information shared by them will be minimal. Both of them will treat the information received with suspicion. Therefore, for effective communication, there must exist a mutual trust between the receiver and the sender.

2009 – June [4] (Or) (b) (i) “Most of us hear but don’t listen and instead we spend time thinking about what we are going to say next. Poor listening skill can create misunderstanding, make us miss deadlines and focus our attention on the wrong issues in the workplace.”

In the light of above statement, suggest any five simple steps to improve the listening skills. (5 marks)

Answer :■

Listening is the receivers activity in oral communication. As the speaker has the responsibility to make effort to be under stood, so the listeners has the responsibility to be attentive and to make effort to understand the meaning of the speaker, of all skills of communication, listening is the most important of all. The higher your position in an organisation, the greater is your listening responsibility. A manager has to spend more time listening to others than speaking. Most people are not good listeners; but fortunately, listening skills can be improved by understanding the steps involved in the process of listening and by following some basic guidelines.

There are some simple steps to improve listening skills:

  • Stop talking- Be attentive make the speaker feel important.
  • Put the speaker at ease. Create a positive atmosphere through body language. Make eye contact and keep still.
  • Be patient, the speaker may need time to say what he/she wants to say: Some people get more nervous wfien interrupted
  • Show that you are listening. This can be done by nodding the head, eye contact, or by using encouraging non-committal expansions like “Hum”, ‘1-See’, ‘oh’ etc. try to match the speakers mood by appropriate response.
  • Provide serious attention by noting down the important points and getting them checked by the speaker.
  • Do not interrupt, Do not give advice, Do not question, Do not utilise, Do not take the conversation in a different direction.
  • Keep your temper cool; An angry person cannot speak and cannot listen.
  • ASK questions only after the speaker begins to feel comfortable.
  • Keep an open mind; do not jump to conclusions. The power to listen is a very sensitive skill; it is the skill that makes interpersonal relations effective.

2010 – Dec [4] (b) Following are the 7Cs of communication :

Completeness,.Conciseness, Consideration, Concreteness, Clarity, Courtesy and Correctness.

Explain them in brief with suitable example (s), (10 marks)

Answer:

The seven C’s are the set of principles that helps us to ensure that our communication and presentation’s are well constructed and clear.

(i) Completeness: It refers to providing all necessary information and ideas required for a particular situation. Complete messages bring out the desired results and avoid confusions.

(ii) Conciseness: It means expressing much in a few words. It does not necessarily mean being brief; it means making every word count.

(iii) Consideration: It refers to prepare every message with the audience in mind. A courteous person shows consideration and thought for others.

(iv) Concreteness: It refers to being specific, definite and vivid rather then vague or general. Put action in your verbs (use of active verbs instead of passive).

(v) Clarity: It refers to choosing precise, concrete and familiar words. The message of the letter must be clear at the first reading. Clearly written messages avoid misunderstandings and save time.

Objective Questions

Past Year Questions and Answers

2002 – Dec [2] (b) Use any five of the following pairs of words in sentences of your own to bring out the difference in their meanings:

(i) Rout — Route.

(ii) Elicit — Illicit.

(iii) Eminent — Imminent.

(iv) Imply — Infer.

(v) Biennial — Biannual.

(vi) Conscious — Conscientious.                                                                         (1 mark each)

Answer :

(i) Rout: Completely defeated. The Pakistani Army was routed during the Indo-Pak war.

Route : (way). Ravi followed the shortest route.

(ii) Elicit: (draws out); Petite letters always elicit reply

Illicit: (unlawful); There are many illicit tamarins in Agra city.

(iii) Eminent: (famous); William Shakespeare is an eminent author of many plays.

Imminent: (close) – There is always an imminent danger once you cross the border.

(iv) Imply : (understood) – It is Implied that students graduating from NT’S will be better engineers.

Infer : (draws from) – The modern system medicines is generally inferred from Vedas.

(v) Biennial : (once in two years) : The SAARC nations meets biennially.

Biannual: (twice a year): All nationalised banks provide interest to their saving account customers biannually.

(vi) Conscious : (aware); All Indians should remain conscious about their fundamental rights and duties.

Conscientious : (ethical); All modern organisations provide conscientious financial status to their shareholders.

2003 – June [1] Rewrite any ten of the following sentences in relation to underlined word (s) as directed against each:

(i) Only God is all powerful. (Substitute a single word for the underlined portion.)

(ii) Loose sheets of paper are available at the stationerv/stationarv shop nearby. (Choose the correct alternative.)

(iii) The day of publication of the Company Secretaries (Foundation) Result is a fateful/fatal day for the candidates. (Select the correct alternative.).

(iv) A large number of banks were nationalised in the past, but they may

be at any moment at present. (Fill in the blank using the

opposite of the word nationalised adding a suitable prefix to it.)

(v) It was not (see) that the construction of the tall multi-storeyed building was so weak that it would collapse so soon. (Put the appropriate form of the underlined word adding a suitable prefix to it.)

(vi) The meeting should not be adjourned sine die. (Replace the underlined Latin phrase with its English meaning.)

(vii) im a posthumous child of my parents said david. (Put the correct punctuation marks and capital letters at appropriate places.)

■ (viii) The jury is/are divided on the issue of capital punishment. (Choose the correct word.)

(ix) When my father and I visited the police station to get release of our unlawfully arrested neighbour, we were unnecessarily harrassed/ harassed/harrased. (Choose the correct spelling).

(x) Though a/an F.R.C.S., Dr. Abraham of Vellore first tries to cure his patients with medicine and only if medicine fails, he takes resort to surgical operation. (Choose the correct article.).

(xi) Dr. Har Govind Khurana, the well-known scientist who lived in the U.S.A. was an immiarant/emigrant from India. (Choose the correct

  • alternative.)

(xii) The old lady living in our locality died after a protracted illness.

(Replace the underlined word with an idiomatic phrase beginning with b_   )    (1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) Omnipotent

(ii) Stationery

(iii) Fateful

(iv) Denationalised

(v) Foreseen

(vi) Sine die

(vii) T m a posthumous child of my parents”,, said David.

(viii) Are

(ix) Harassed

(x) An

(xi) Emigrant

(xii) The old lady living in our locality breathed her last breath or passed away after a protracted illness.

2004 – June [1] (a) Make sentences of your own of any two of the following pairs of words so as to bring out clearly the difference in meaning and use between the two words in each pair:

(i) Biannual — Biennial.

(ii) Precede — Proceed.

<iii) Complement — Supplement.

(iv) Advice — Advise.                                                                                                  (2 marks)

(b) Re-write any two of the following sentences correctly:

(i) One of the member of the Board did not agree to majority decision.

(ii) One should mind his own business.

(iii) She is my cousin sister.

(iv) Marketing Manager is senior than Sales Manager.                                             (2 marks)

(c) Make sentences using any two of the following words with matching prepositions:

(i) Accountup
(ii) Imposefor
(iii) Guiltyupon
(iv) Pulledof
Answer :

(2 marks)

(a) (i) Biennial : (once in two years) : The SAARC nations meets

biennially.

Biannual: (twice a year): All nationalised banks provide interest to their saving account customers biannually.

(ii) Precede : Previous

George Bush Junior preceded Barak Obama as the President of America.

Proceed : To continue as planned.

Indian Army proceeded towards the enemy base camp, as planned.

(iii) Compliment: That which completes.

A good scholar compliments the work of the teacher.

Supplement: Something additional to complete a thing.

The bonus I got from my extra input provides a supplement to my main income.

(iv) Advice : (noun) recommendation offered as a guide to action. Anyone can offer advice.

Advise : (verb) to give advice to,

My teacher advised me to work hard.

(b) (i) Member => members.

(ii) His — ones

(iii) Delete sister.

(iv) Than — to.

(c) (i) Account for: Production manager is required to account for the

increase in total cost.

(ii) Impose upon : Willingness to work hard cannot be imposed upon, it comes from within.

(iii) Guilty of : Vinu is guilty of murder.

voice.                                                                                                                            (1 mark)

(iv) Pulled up : The officer was pulled up in Rajdhani express by the vigilance officer during the festive season.

t

2004 – Dec [1] Attempt/rewrite/complete any ten of the following:

(i) “Whip the thief mercilessly.” Convert this sentence into passive

(ii) Make a sentence using the idiom –

To weather the storm                                                                                                   (1 mark)

OR

To drive a hard bargain.                                                                                               (1 mark)

(iii) The nurse said, “how did I feel ?” Convert this sentence into

reported speech.                                                                                                          (1 mark)

(iv) Correct the sentence –

This public limited company has seven partners.                                                        (1 mark)

OR

I have applied for two days’ french leave.                                                                    (1 mark)

Answer:

(i) Let the thief be whipped mercilessly.

(ii) To weather the storm :

Inspite of the non-availability of the ‘Scanner’, the students weathered the storm and came out successfully in the examinations.

OR

To drive a hard bargain : (To be uncompromising in making a deal).

Only after driving a hard bargain, he managed to buy the medicines cheaply.

(iii) The nurse asked How I felt.

(iv) Partners -> Shareholders.

OR

Two days french — Two day’s leave, leave

(To come out successfully).

2005 – June [1] (a) Rewrite any two of the following sentences correctly:

(i) The teacher as well as the students have reached Jaipur.

(ii) I am living in Delhi since last thirty three years,

(iil) My son Apoorva is the monitor of his class, •

(iv) One should mind his own business.                                                                    (2 marks)

(b) Make meaningful sentences using any two of the following phrases/ idioms:

(i) ab initio

(ii) To set one’s own house in order

(iii) Sine die

(iv) Status quo.                                                                                                           (2 marks)

Answer :

(a) (i) Have – has

(ii) Since – for

(iii) My son, Apoorva, is the monitor of his class.

(iv) His – ones.

(b) (i) Ab initio : from the beginning.

The agreement was void ab initio,

(ii) To set one’s own house in order: To arrange ones own affairs in a proper order by removing disharmony.

Let Pakistan set her own house in order before talking of welfare of the Indians.

(iii) Sine die : without a day being fixed for reassembly.

After the attack on the Principal, the school was closed sine-die

(iv) Status quo : The existing condition.

The court has ordered the State Government to maintain status – quo.

2005- Dec [1] (a) Make meaningful sentences using any two of the following idioms/phrases:

(i) To put the cart before the horse

(ii) To go to dogs

(iii) Good offices

(2 marks)

(iv) In toto.

(b) Rewrite any two of the following sentences correctly:

(i) The opposition party, being not satisfied with the reply of the minister, walked over.

(ii) Cant you come today?

(iii) Six hours before his death, Pope John mumbled his final words; Let me go to the house of the Father.

(iv) To err is human to forgive, divine.                                                                       (2 marks)

(c) Attempt the following:

(i) Please repeat the question again. (Correct the sentence to avoid

unnecessary repetition.)                                                                                               (1 mark)

Answer:

(a) (i) To put the cart before the horse : Reverse the proper

order/procedure.

Preparation of sales target without analyzing the market is like putting the cart before the horse.

(ii) To go to dogs : To deteriorate miserably.

Due to inflationary situations, the market has gone to dogs.

(iii) Good offices : Influence.

Ram could get this post through the good offices of his superior (boss.)

(iv) In Toto : As a whole.

The Chief’s decision was accepted in toto.

(b) (i) Being notnot being

(ii) Cantcan’t

(iii) Six hours before his death, Pope John mumbled his final words, “Let me go to the house of the father”.

(iv) To err is Human; to forgive – divine.

(c) (i) Please repeat the question

2006 – June [1] Rewrite any ten of the following sentences as directed :

(i) His feet were …………… and hair undressed. Who will …………… this loss ?

(Fill in the blanks choosing a suitable word — Bear/Bare.)

(ii) He …………… an altogether new device to save labour. (Fill in the blank

choosing a suitable word — Discovered/lnvented.)

(iii) Whose gain is it ? (Write antonym of the underlined word.)

(iv) There is utter confusion. (Write synonym of the underlined words.)

(v) He did not however gain a big prize (Put punctuation mark (s) wherever necessary.)

(vi) He is …………… and she is …………… . (Fill in the blanks choosing a

suitable word — Beautiful/Handsome).

(vii) A person who sells or arranges cut flowers is called …………… . (Fill in

the blank with a suitable word.)

(viii) Mrs. Saxena teaches us Business Communication. (Change the voice.)

(ix) He promised to soon send the article. (Improve the sentence.)

(x) An advertisement: Wanted furnished …………… . (Fill in the blank

choosing a correct word — acomodation/accomodation/ accommodation/acommodation).

(xi) Mohan is loyal to his company. (Add a negative prefix to the underlined word.)

(xii) He liked the novel too much and wanted to meet the …………… . (Fill in

the blank by adding suitable suffix to the underlined word.)

(xiii) ASSOCHAM has invited the Finance Minister to its annual meeting. Give full form of the acronym — ASSOCHAM.)

(xiv) Narmada Dam Project continues to be a subject of dispute between States. (Substitute the underlined words by an idiom.)

(xv) The Principal is a member of the managing committee of the school

by virtue of his office. (Substitute the underlined words with Latin expression.) (1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) Bare & Bear

(ii) Invented

(iii) Loss

(iv) Total chaos

(v) He did not, however, gain a big prize.

(vi) Handsome, Beautiful.

(vii) Florist

(viii) Business communication is taught to us by Mrs. Saxena.

(ix) He promised to send the article soon.

(x) Accommodation ■>*

(xi) Disloyal

(xii) Novelist

(xiii) ASSOCHAM – Associated Chambers ot Commerce and Industry.

(xiv) Bone of contention.

(xv) Ex – Officio.

2006 – Dec [1] (a) Attempt the following :

(i) I agree of course that we must reach a decision soon. (Punctuate the sentence.)

(ii) The Office of Profit Biil was signed by the President. (Change into active voice)

(iii) He has went to check on last year’s records. (Correct the sentence.) (b) Make sentences of your own using any three of the following pair of

words to bring out the difference in their meanings :

(i) Practice – Practice

(ii) Latter – Letter

(iii) Beneficial – Beneficent

(iv) Infer-Imply

(v) Lose – Loose.                                                                                                  (1 mark each)

Answer:

(a) (i) I agree, of course, that we must reach a decision soon.

(ii) The President signed the office of profit bill.

(iii) went — gone.

(b) (i) Practice : (Noun). Constant and regular practice will make you

perfect.

Practise : (verb). Himanshu Rastogi practice law in Calicut.

(ii) Latter: The students were informed about the test that will be held in the latter part of the day.

Letter : A letter informing about the ill health of his Grand Father was sent to him.

(iii) Beneficial : The release of solved scanner will prove beneficial to students.

Beneficent: (doing good). Beneficent people are worthy of respect and honour.

(iv) Infer: The Judge was asked to infer from the circumstances of the * case..

Imply : A partner has an implied authority to sell goods

(v) Lose : Students have more to gain than lose by attending the. seminar.

Loose : Loose fitting clothes are again in fashion.

2007 – June [1] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each :

(i) He was so tired that he could not stand. (Change into a simple sentence.)

(ii) I am not so intelligent as he is. (Use comparative degree.)

(iii) You should not be irregular in your habits. (Re-write in affirmative form.)

(iv) The landlady called her maid-servants into the room. (Change the gender of the nouns.)

(v) He said to me, “Where do you live ?” (Change into indirect speech.)

(vi) He is reading an interesting book. (Change into passive voice.)

(1 mark each)

(b) Make sentences of your own using any three of the following pairs of words to bring out the difference in their meanings :

(i) Principal —Principle

(ii) Access —Excess

(iii) Dependent—Dependant

(iv)  Advice—Advise                                                                                              (1 mark each)

Answer:

(a) (i) He was too tired to stand.

(ii) He is more intelligent than I am.

(iii) You should be regular in your habits.

(iv) The landlord called his servants into the rooms

(v) He asked me where I lived.

(vi) An interesting book is being read by him.

(b) (i) The principal directed all the students to assemble in the auditorium.

Archimedes’ principle states that a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.

(ii) The workers had free access to the manager.

The production is far in excess of the target.

(iii) Nepal is dependant upon friendly countries for help.

The king had a number of dependants.

(iv) Anyone can offer advice.

My father advised me to work hard.

2007 – Dec [1] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each :

(i) 15% of the sales representatives failed to attend the conference. (Change this into positive sentence.)

(ii) If a customer pays in time, he is placed on the company’s preferred list. (Change the pronoun to gender-neutral.)

(iii) One should-mind his own business. (Re-write the sentence correctly.)

(iv)  …………… officer I met last time has been transferred. (Use the correct

article in the blank space.)                                                                                  (1 mark each)’

(b) Correct the following sentences :

(i) He is in search for a good house.

(ii) The chairman is superior than the secretary.

(iii) Kashmiri apples are different than Himachali apples.

(1 mark each)

(c) Make sentences of your own using the following pairs of words to bring out the difference in their meanings :

(i) Disperse — Disburse

(ii) Erratic — Erotic

(iii) Message — Massage.                                                                                    (1 mark each)

Answer:

(a) (i) The conference attracted 85% of the sales representatives.

(ii) A customer paying in time in placed on the company’s preferred list.

(iii) One should mind one’s own business

(iv) The officer I met last time has been transferred.

(b) (i) for -of

(ii) than-to

(iii) Than-from

(c) (i) Disperse : To scatter;

The police used lathi charge to disperse the mob.

Disburse : To pay out The loan has been disbursed.

(ii) Erratic : Uncertain, irregular.

The valuation of answer books is erratic

Erotic : Pertaining to love

The magazine has many erotic picture scenes.

(iii) Message : Communication

Your message has been clearly transferred and received. Massage : Soothing rubbing of the body with oil or cream. Massage with oil tone up your body.

2008 – June [1] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each :

(i) All technical staff must definitely wear white coats in the laboratory. [Avoid unnecessary word (s).]

(ii) I have been ill since two months. (Correct the sentence.)

(iii) The Secretary of the committee issued a report with regard to working of the college. (Change the underlined collective preposition by using-of/on / to.)

(iv) Prepare partner’s capital accounts. (Make correct use of apostrophe.)

(v) Rahul worked hard, and failed. (Use correct conjunction.)

(vi) English is spoken all over the world. (Change into active voice.)

(vii) “Are you a member of the trade union ?” said the Personnel Manager. (Change into indirect speech.)

(viii) The glass of water is half empty. (Change into positive statement.)

(ix) Work hard and you will pass the examination. (Change into simple sentence.)

(x) India is a great country. (Change the sentence into superlative.)

(1 mark each)

(b) Make sentences of your own using the following words/phrases/idioms to bring out their meanings :

(i) Ultra vires

(ii) To nip in the bud

(iii) To rise to the occasion

(iv) A give and take policy

(v) At the eleventh hour.                                                                                      (1 mark each)

Answer:

(a) (i) All technical staff must wear white coats in the laboratory.

(ii) I have been ill for the last two months.

(iii) The secretary of the committee issued a report on working of the college.

(iv) Prepare partner’s capital accounts.

(v) Rahul worked hard, yet failed.

(vi) The world speaks English.

(vii) The Personnel Manager asked the employee whether he was a member of the trade union.

(viii) The glass of water is half – full.

(ix) You will pass the examination, if you work hard.

(x) India is the greatest country.

(b) (i) Ultra vires : (Beyond ones authority)

An act performed is ultra vires, if it violates the State Laws of the Constitution.

(ii) To Nip in the bud : (Stop at an early stage)

Bad habits, like smoking, playing cards, among children must be nipped in the bud.

(iii) To rise to the occasion : (To act daringly, as the situation demands.)

In the face of an attack by the enemy, the General motivate his men to rise to the occasion.

(iv) A give and take policy : (A policy of mutual concession),

A give and take policy alone can restore peace between China and America.

(v) At the eleventh hour: (at the last moment)

All work was completed by Uncle Sam at the eleventh hour.

2008 – Dec [2] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each :

(i) I met the accountant on only one occasion. (Omit unnecessary words).

(ii) My shirt is similar with your shirt. (Correct the preposition).

(iii) The milk is not fit for drink. (Correct the verb).

(iv) The restaurant served excellent food; it was only two years old. (Keep related words together through proper punctuation.)

(v) The contract expires in a few years. (Use strong adjective.)

(vi) Your order cannot be shipped until Friday. (Change into affirmative sentence.)

(vii) The Birla House was built in the late 1940s by the Birla Family. (Change into active voice.)

(viii) Bangaluru is the most polluted city in India. (Change the degree of comparison.)

(ix) “Call the witness”, said the magistrate. (Change into indirect speech.)

(x) What other sports do you play …………… hockey ? (Fill in the blank

choosing a correct word …………… beside/ besides.)(10 marks)

Answer:

(i) I met the accountant only once.

(ii) My shirt is similar to your shirt.

(iii) The milk is not fit for drinking.

(iv) The restaurant, which was only two years old. served excellent food.

(v) The contract expires in three years.

(vi) Your order will be shipped on Friday.

(vii) The Birla Family built the Birla House in the late 1940(s).

(viii) No other city in India is as polluted as Bangaluru.

(ix) The magistrate ordered the witness to be called.

(x) Besides.

2008 – Dec [3] (a) Make sentences of your own using the following words/ phrases/ idioms to bring out their meanings :

(i)First-come, first- served
(ii)From rags to riches
(iii)In toto
(iv)Face value(5 marks)

(b) Words have different meanings in different contexts/situations. Make sentences of your own using any five of the following words to bring out their two different meanings :

(i) Table

(ii) Chair

(iii) Edge

(iv) Glass

(v) Ice

(vi) Jack

(vii) Master.                                                                                                       (2 marks each)

Answer:

(a) (i) The tickets for the fashion-show were sold on first come, first served

basis.

(ii) Amitabh Bachan rose from rags to riches.

(iii) The school authorities rejected Arun’s demand in toto.

(iv) The face value of S.R. Tendulkar is very high and is honoured.

(b) (i) Table : Many tables and chairs have

their rubber tags missing.

‘OR’

Lakhme’s new offer is on the table.

(ii) Chair.: The chair used by Dhirubhai Ambani still holds its value.

Mr. R. Raju chairs the board meetings.

(iii) Edge : My institute is situated on the edge of the locality.

The child edged towards the door.

(iv) Glass : My mother ordered the glass-crockery on the net.

The water in the glass is not fit for drinking.

(v) Ice : Australian cricket team accepted the challenge by they knew they were on thin ice.

All the ice in the refrigerator melted due to electricity failure.

(vi) Jack : Jack and Jill went up the hill.

so replace the punctured tyre he jacked the rear of the car.

(vii) Master : Ramesh got his masters degree from the Victoria University.

The dog sat near the injured master.

2009 – June [2] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each :

(i) I can’t do that until Monday. (Change into affirmative sentence.)

(ii) Signing both copies of the lease is a necessary requirement. (Omit unnecessary word (s).)

(iii) Seema made an announcement that she will give consideration to our request. (Avoid unnecessary verb.)

(iv) Look our company is not sure of the results. (Use comma.)

(v) I attended the meeting on August 16, 17, 18 and on August 19 I returned home. (Use semicolon and comma.)

(vi) i know that you are an authority …………… Business Communication.

(Fill in the blank space with correct preposition.)

(vii) The LLP Bill was signed by the President of India. (Change into active voice.)

(viii) Exporting goods to another country at price below cost denotes  ……………  (Fill in the blank space using appropriate word—

pumping/dumping—to convey the correct meaning.)

(ix) The landlord called his servant in the room. (Change the gender of the nouns.)

(x) What does’ i.e.‘ stand for ? (Choose the correct answer – so that/for example /that is.) (1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) I’ll do that till Monday.

(ii) Signing both copies of the lease is necessary.

(iii) Seema announced that she will consider our request.

(iv) Look, our company is not sure of the results.

(v) I attended the meeting on August 16,17 and 18, and on August 19, returned home.

(vi) I know that you are an authority on Business Communication.

(vii) The President of India signed the LLP bill.

(viii) Exporting goods to another country at price below cost denotes dumping.

(ix) The Landlady Called her maid in the room.

(x) i.e. stands for ‘that is’.

2009 – June [3] (a) Make sentences of your own using the following words/phrases/idioms to bring out their meanings :

(i) Winning the battle to lose the war

(ii) Bull in a China shop

(iii) Bone of contention

(iv) To go red in the face

(v) Cooking the books.                                                                                        (1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) Winning the battle to loose the war:

Do not challenge your prospective Buyer; as you could win the battle only to lose the war.

(ii) Bull in a China Shop :

Don’t let Ramesh handle the situation of labour unrest, with his short tempered nature he will only be like a Bull in a China shop and worsen the situation.

(iii) Bone of’contention :

Kashmir is still a bone of contention between India and Pakistan.

(iv) To go red in the face:

Under any embarrassing situation, one can go red in the face.

(v) Cooking the books:

Raju, MD of Satyam Computers is guilty of cooking the books.

2009 – June [3] (b) Words have different meanings in different contexts/ situations. Make sentences of your own using any five of the following words to bring out their two different meanings :

(i) Chair

(ii) Company

(iii) Excuse

(iv) Fabricate

(v) Interest

(vi) Lead.                                                                                                            (2 marks each)

Answer:

(i) Chair:

  • There is a chair lying on the floor.
  • The ICSI President chaired the Cabinet Committee on Corporate Governance.

(ii) Company :

  • I love my daughter’s company.
  • This company is owned by Mr. Mukesh Binani.

(iii) Excuse :

‘’ Students should not give excuses for coming late.

  • “Please excuse us !” the students asked the watchman.

(iv) Fabricate :

  • Mr. A.K. Bajpai runs a steel fabrication business.
  • Assam Ulfa militants are in a habit of fabricating stories to hide their record of exporting terror.

(v) Interest:

  • All Banks have increased the interest rate on housing loans.
  • My daughter has no interest in studying in Australia.

(vi) Lead :

  • Kindly, get a new connection lead for your computer and the connectivity of the broadband would be alright.
  • The senior Inspector got a useful lead and arrested the thief.

2009 – Dec [2] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each :

(i) He returned back all the books he borrowed from the library. (Omit unnecessary word(s).)

(ii)  Dr. Sinha is an authority …………… Network Security. (Fillin the blank

space using the correct preposition.)

(iii) Let us pray for the soul of the …………… (Fill in the blank space

choosing the correct word – diseased/deceased – to convey the correct meaning.)

(iv) See that you will come for the meeting in time. (Correct the sentence.)

(v) Did I ever ask you to do it ? (Change into assertive sentence.)

(vi) Light travels faster than anything else. (Use positive degree.)

(vii) When they were challenged they ran away. (Change into simple sentence.)

(viii) He requested them to let him go. (Change into direct speech.)

(ix) His action is quite justified. (Change into negative sentence.)

(x) You failed to sign your cheque. (Change into negative sentence.)

(1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) He returned all the books he borrowed from the library.

(ii) Dr. Sinha is an authority on Network Security.

(iii) Let us pray for the soul of the deceased.

(iv) See that you come for the meeting in time.

(v) I never told you to do it.

(vi) Nothing else travels so fast as light.

(vii) On being challenged they ran away.

(viii) He said, “Please let me go”.

(ix) His action is unjustified.

(x) Your cheque was not signed.

2009 – Dec [3] (b) Words have different meanings in different contexts/situations. Make sentences of your own using any five of the following words to bring out their two different meanings :

(i) Even

(ii) Soil

(iii) Quarter

(iv) Cover

(v) Run

(vi) List.                                                                                                              (2 marks each)

Answer:

(i) Even: The athlete kept running at an even pace.

Ram knows even less than me.

(ii) Soil: The scandal in Satyam Computers soiled its reputation.

The Soil of U.P. is fertile

(iii) Quarter: Now, the companies have to declare their financial results every quarter.

I got help from an unexpected quarter of the society.

(iv) Cover: The I IBM course will cover a range of subjects.

His neat office was a cover for his real work.

(v) Run: Ramesh runs faster than Rahim.

India made 434 runs against South Africa in the Sharjah Cricket Match.

(vi) List: Kindly prepare the roll list of all the students.

Your case in the High Court has been listed for hearing today.

2010 – June [3] (a) Make sentences of your own using the following pair of words to bring out their meanings :

(i) Buy-Bye

(ii) Assure-Ensure

(iii) Sign out-Sign in

(iv) Beat-Beet

(v) Pole-Poll.                                                                                                        (1 mark each)

(b) Words have different meanings in different contexts/situations. Make

sentences of your own using the following words to bring out their two different meanings :

(i) Bail

(ii) Drawings

(iii) Fat

(iv) Nuclear

(v) Trial.                                                                                                              (2 marks each)

Answer :

(a) Buy :

(i) Buy : I buy grocery items from my uncles shop only.

Bye : wherever we go out we say bye- bye.

(ii) Assure : Salesman was assure of better sales this season. Ensure: One should ensure confirmed reservation before travelling by Train.

(iii) Sign out: Do sign out, if you have replied to all the, mail- messages. Sign in : To open your e – mail account, first you have to sign in.

(iv) Beat: Ramesh, the culprit was beaten badly by the police.

Beet: Beet is also one of the raw materials to manufacture Sugar.

(v) Pole : I was waiting for the bus, near the pole.

Poll : Nitish kumar and his party won the Bihar Polls by a record margin.

(b) (i) Bail : The criminal was granted the bail by the magistrate.

Sachin missed the ball and the wicketkeeper took off the bails.

(ii) Drawings: M.F. Hussains drawings fetch him world fame. •

Rajiv’s drawings from his business amounted to ? 8 lakhs.

(iii) Fat: He has gained a lot of fat and weight after his injury .

Animal fat is used as adulteration in the preparation of vegetable ghee.

(iv) Nuclear: Traditional family system is now being replaced by nuclear family system.

Pakistan have also planted Nuclear missiles across its Afghan Border.

(v) Trial : The trial of his divorce case never took place due to their settlement.

Colgate new paste has offered free trial packets for the consumers.

2010 – Dec [2] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each :

(i) Much remain to be done. (Correct the sentence.)

(ii) This proposal is tentative. However, I request that it should be accepted immediately. (Join the two sentences with the help of a semicolon.)

(iii) Purinder, he said, has been chosen as an Assistant Professor. (Rewrite the sentence in direct speech.)

(iv) He will finish the work within a fortnight. (Change into passive voice.)

(v) Charity begins  ……………  home. (Fill-in the blank space using appropriate preposition.)

(vi) Bengaluru is the most polluted city in India. (Change the degree of comparison.)

(vii) The client must make certain that accurate records are kept. (Give one word for the underlined words.)

(viii) A general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision can be expressed in one word as …………… (Fill-in the blank space.)

(ix) Posthumous means ……………  (Fill-in the blank space.)

(x) If you do your work honestly then everyone will trust you. (Avoid unnecessary word/s.) (1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) Much remains to be done.

(ii) This proposal is tentative, however. I request that it should be accepted immediately.

(iii) He said, “Purinder has been chosen as on assistant professor”

(iv) The work will be finished by him within a fortnight.

(v) Charity begins at home.

(vi) No other city in India is as polluted as Bengaluru.

(vii) Make certain : Ensure.

(viii) Referendum.

(ix) Posthumous means – occurring after the death of the originator.

(x) If you do your work honestly everyone will trust you.

2010 – Dec [3] (a) Make sentences of your own using the following pair of words to bring out their meanings :

(i) Whose — Who’s

(ii) Between — Among

(iii) Anxious — Eager

(iv) Canvas — Canvass

(v) Inter-State — Intra-State.                                                                              (2 marks each)

Answer:

(i) Whose book is this ?

Who’s here for the meeting ?

(ii) The food is to be shared between you and me.

The property is to be shared among all the four brothers.

(iii) We all were anxious to know the result of our examinations.

Rajni was eager to meet her mother.

(iv) During monsoons we used canvas cloth to cover our Rickshaws. No canvassing is permitted inside the laboratory.

(v) Delhi was declared the winner of the inter-state football match. Much is needed to improve the inter-state law and order.

2011 – June [2] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each:

(i) The teacher gave me three options to repeat the examination, to submit a presentation or to fail the class. (Punctuate the sentence.)

(1 mark)

(ii) He will finish the work in a fortnight. (Change into passive voice)

(1 mark)

(iii) Kapil has finished studying. He went out shopping. (Combine the sentences using verb in present participle form.)                                                                                                                            (1 mark)

(iv)  …………… word to the wise is sufficient. (Fill in the blank space using appropriate article.)       (1 mark)

(v) My father is the Secretary and the Treasurer of our club. (Omit the unnecessary word/s). (1 mark)

(vi) He is quite sad. (Name the adverb.)                                                                      (1 mark)

(vii) At college, Vanisha enjoys a lot. (Name the preposition.)                                    (1 mark)

(viii) Alas ! My professor is dead now. (Name the interjection.)                                  (1 mark)

(ix) He opened the door. (Name the object.)                                                               (1 mark)

(x) Sachin and Viru built a good foundation. (Name the conjunction.)                        (1 mark)

(b) Re-write the following sentences after filling-in the blank space(s) by choosing the most appropriate answer from the given options :

(i) Can you hear what he is …………… ?

(a) saying

(b) speaking

(c) telling

(d) talking.                                                                                                                     (1 mark)

(ii) There must be some …………… I think we have come to wrong house.

(a) mistake

(b) fault

(c) miscue

(d)  slip.                                                                                                                         (1 mark)

(iii) The science which deals with the physical structure and substance of the earth is known as …………… .

(a) geography

(b) anthropology

(c) geology

(d)  zoology.                                                                                                                  (1 mark)

(iv) The meaning of making a ‘monkey of you’ in the sentence, “A word of warning : don’t let him make a monkey of you”, is

(a) make a fool of you

(b) to default you

(c) to buck pass on you

(1 mark)

(d) to scratch upon you.

(v) Acrobat is the one who …………… .

(a) performs gymnastic feats

(b) dances

(c) sings

(d) is an atheist.                                                                                                            (1 mark)

Answer:

(a) (i) The teacher gave me three options: to repeat the examination, to

submit a presentation or to fail the class.

(ii) The work will be finished by him in a fortnight.

(iii) Having finished his studies, Kapil went out shopping.

(iv) A word to the wise is sufficient.

(v) My father is the Secretary-cum-Treasurer of our club.

(vi) Quite

(vii) At

(viii) Alas

(ix) Door

(x) ; and

(b) (i) (a) Saying

(ii) (a) Mistake

(iii) (a) Geography

(iv) (a) Make a tool of you

(v) (a) Performs gymnastic feats

2011 – Dec [2] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each:

(i) I am tired he replied however I will complete the work. (Punctuate the sentence.)

(ii) You must abide …………… the rules. (Fill-in the blank space using

appropriate preposition.)

(iii) Both the brothers, Ketan and Chetan are intelligent but the later is highly educated. (Replace the underlined word with the correct word.)

(iv) His speech was broadcasted yesterday. (Correct the sentence.)

(v) After the accident, Bhanu remained in a state of  ……………  for five days. (Fill-in the blank space using correct word – comma/coma.)

(vi) It is a great house however it is very far from the town. (Punctuate the sentence.)

(vii) The candidates will be interviewed between 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. (Replace the underlined word with the correct word.)

(viii) He is very good  …………… Tennis. (Use a suitable preposition.)

(ix) Please do not make adverse …………… , (Fill-in the blank space using correct word – comments/remarks.)

(x) After sometime Charu stopped to work. (Correct the sentence.)

(1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) “I am tired,” he replied, “however I will complete the work”.

(ii) by

(iii) latter

(iv) His speech was broadcast yesterday.

(v) coma

(vi) It is a great house; however, it is very far from town.

(vii) from

(viii) at

(ix) remarks

(x) After sometime Charu stopped working.

2012 – June [2] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each:

(i) Mobile phone should not be used while driving. (Change into active voice.)

(ii) he asked me whats your name (Punctuate the sentence.)

(iii) Bring me …………… apple. (Fill-in the blank space using an indefinite article.)

(iv) He is wiser than  …………… (me/l). (Fill-in the blank space using the correct word.)

(v) This is an useful book. (Correct the sentience.)

(vi) Dinesh is the cleverest boy in the locality. (Re-write using comparative degree.)

(vii) No one is immortal. (Change into affirmative sentence.)

(viii) Once expects proper behaviour from a college student. (Change into passive voice.)

(ix) The Principal said to him, “Call the boy.” (Change into indirect speech.)

(x) This is the cleanest hospital of the two hospitals in the city. (Correct the sentence.) (1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) One should not use mobile phone while driving

(ii) He asked me what my name was

(iii) Bring me an apple

(iv) He is wiser than I

(v) This is a useful book

(vi) Dinesh is more clever/cleverer than any other boy in the locality

(vii) Everyone is mortal

(viii) Proper behaviour is expected from/of a college student

(ix) The principal asked him to call the boy

(x) This is the cleaner of the two hospitals in the city.

2012 – Dec [2] (a) Attempt the following as directed against each:

(i) He will finish the work in a fortnight. (Change into passive voice.)

(ii) What other games do you plays …………… hockey? Fill-in the blank space using correct word-besides/beside.)

(iii) Rahul had finished the homework. He went out for shopping. (Combine the two sentences using verb+ing.)

(iv) Charity begins   …………… home. (Fill-in the blank space using appropriate preposition-at/in/on/after.)

(v) The principal told us that nights in England were far longer than in India. (Correct the sentence.)

(vi) Her new book is in a continuation of her autobiography. (Correct th sentence.)

(vii) These machines make farming much more easier. (Correct the sentence.)

(viii) You should not be late for class every day. (Change into affirmative sentence.)

(ix) When no connecting word is used to link two independent clauses, one should use a …………… . (Fill-in the blank space using correct word-comma/colon.)

(x) Progressive measures are …………… to the whole society. (Fill-in the blank space using correct word-beneficial/beneficent.)

(1 mark each)

Answer:

(i) The work will be finished by him in a fortnight.

(ii) What other games do you play besides hockey?

(iii) Having finished his home work, Rahul went out for shopping.

(iv) Charity begins at home.

(v) The principal told us that nights in England were longer than those in India.

(vi) Here new book is a continuation of her autobiography.

(vii) These machines make farming much easier.

(viii) You should be punctual for class every day.

(ix) When no connecting word is used to link two independent clauses, one should use a colon.

(x) Progressive measures are beneficial to the whole society.

2018 – May [8] (b) Change the following sentehce to indirect speech :

(iii) The policeman said to the stranger who are you.                                                 (1 mark)

Answer:

The policeman asked the stranger who he was.

2018 – May [9] (b) Change the following sentence into indirect speech:

(iii) The Shopkeeper says,“prices are shooting up alarmingly.

(1 mark)

Answer:

The shopkeeper says that prices are shooting up alarmingly.

2018 – May [10] (b) Rewrite the following sentence in Passive voice. *

(ii) The customer should receive the delivery by Friday.                                             (1 mark)

Answer:

The delivery should be received by the customer by Friday.

2018 – May [10] (b) Rewrite the following sentence in Active Voice.

(iii) He will be given a ticket for over speeding by the police officer.

(1 mark)

Answer:

The Police Officer will give a ticket to him for over speeding.

2018 – May [11] (b) Rewrite the following sentences in the active voice:

(iii) The entire district was destroyed by cyclone.                                                       (1 mark)

Answer:

Cyclone destroyed the entire district.

2018 – Nov [8] (b) (iii) Change the following sentence into indirect speech: Suchi asked Sunil, ’’Are you interested to visit the temple?”                                                                                     (1 mark)

Answer:

Indirect: Suchi asked Sunil if she was interested to visit the temple.

2018 – Nov [9] (b) (iii) Change the following sentence into indirect speech: Shalini gave order to her younger sister, “Go home immediately.”

(1 mark)

Answer:

Indirect: Shalini ordered her younger sister to go home immediately.

2018 – Nov [10] (b) (i) Fill up the blank with the most suitable preposition or adverb given in the brackets.

He apologized  ……………  his teacher for his misbehaviour, (to/ from/ with/ against) (1 mark)

(ii) Rewrite the following sentence in Passive Voice.

Sunita said, “Please give me a glass of water.”                                                           (1 mark)

(iii) Rewrite the following sentence in Active Voice.

The case should be handled by you carefully since it is critical in nature.                  (1 mark)

Answer:

(i) He apologized to his teacher for his misbehaviour.

(ii) Passive: Sunita requested to give her a glass of water.

(iii) Active: You should handle the case carefully since it is critical in nature.

2018 – Nov [11] (b) (iii) Rewrite the following sentence in the Active Voice:

The deer was trapped by the cunning fox.                                                                   (1 mark)

Answer:

Active: The cunning fox trapped the deer.

2019 – June [8] (b) (iii) Change the following sentence to indirect speech: Pari-said to me “I have been living in London since last December”

(1 mark)

Answer:

Pari told me that, she has been living in London since last december.

2019 – June [9] (b) (iii) Change the following sentence into indirect speech: She said “I am watching a television show”                                                                                                                            (1 mark)

Answer:

She said that she is watching a television show.

2019 – June [10] (b) (i) Change the sentence from Active to Passive Voice. The teacher always answers the students’ questions.                                                                                                     (1 mark)

(ii) Change the sentence from Passive to Active Voice.

Every night, the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew.

(1 mark)

(iii) Change the following sentence to indirect speech.

She said “My Father came yesterday”.                                                                        (1 mark)

Answer:

(i) Questions of the students are always answered by the teacher

(ii) The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night

(iii) She informed that her father came the day before.

2019 – June [11] (b) (iii) Change the sentence into Active Voice :

The Grand Canyon is visited by thousands of tourists every year.

(1 mark)

Answer:

Thousands of tourists visit the Grand Canyon every year.

Practice Questions

Q.1: Classify the following sentences as simple compound, compound or compound – complex.

(a) I made an airplane out of stone.

(b) I put a piece of cantaloupe underneath the microscope.

(c) While fishing in the blue lagoon, I caught a loverly silver fish.

(d) My voice was raspy, rough and cracked.

(e) I opened my eyes and looked up at the rain, and it dripped in my head and flowed into my brain.

(f) She dropped the pan and the plate, but she held on the spoon.

(g) The big brown dog ran after the blue and red ball.

(h) Before the queen rode in the parade, she gave a speech.

(i) We won the game, but my uniform was muddy because it rained the entire was time.

(j) The sun is shining through the clouds, so I think that we can go swimming.

(k) James and Eve rode their bicycles after they ate lunch.

(l) I will get to watch television, but first, I have to clean up the dishes after we finish eating.

Q.2: State which of the following are compound and which are complen sentences. In every sentence, identify the dependent and independent clauses.

(a) Stay in the bath until the phone rings.

(b) Leave while you can.

(c) The human brain never stop’s working until you stand up to speak in public.

(d) I like tea, and he likes coffee.

(e) I drove to the park and then I walked to the beach.

(f) Sarah walked to class, but Kevin van.

(g) Even through it was a long trip, they came to the Island in comes.

(h) Since I have no milk, I’ll go to the store.

Q.3: Change the following sentences to indirect speech.

(a) The girl said, “It gives me great pleasure to be here this evening.”

(b) The man said, “I must go as soon as possible.”

(c) He said, ‘I have won.’

(d) She said ‘I don’t want to see any of you; go away.’

(e) The teacher says, ‘If you work hard, you will pass.’

(f) He said, ‘Let’s wait for her return’.

(g) Alice said, ‘How clever I am!’

(h) ‘Which way did she go?’ asked the young man.

(i) ‘Please wait here till I return’ she told him.

(j) He said to me, ‘Where are you going?’

Q.4: Rewrite the following sentences in passive voice:-

(a) I did not beat her.

(b) I will never forget this experience.

(c) Mother made a cake yesterday.

(d) The boy teased the girl.

(e) Did she do her duty?

(f) The tiger was chasing the deer.

(g) She has written a nc”el.

(h) She has learned her lessons.

(i) Have you finished the report?

(j) The Police have caught the thief.

(k) My brother has completed the work.

(l) Somebody stole my pen yesterday.

(m) Our team may win the match.

(n) Nurses look after patients.

Q.5: Rewrite the following sentences in the active voice.

(a) He is being deceived by his own friends.

(b) Prince Hamlet was welcomed by the people.

(c) The proposal has been rejected by the committee.

(d) I have given much cause for anxiety.

(e) Have my orders been carried out by you?

(f) The story was eagerly listened to.

(g) Our lives are wasted in anticipation.

(h) The tree was uprooted by the storm.

(i) The wounded persons were taken to hospital by the Police.

(j) By whom was this piece of composition written?

(k) America was discovered by Columbus.

(l) Is John taught by you?

Answer Key

Q.1:(a) Simple

(b) Simple

(c) Complex

(d) Compound-Complex

(e) Simple

(f) Compound

(g) Simple

(h) Complex

(i) Compound- Complex

(j) Complex

(k) Compound-Complex

(l) Compound-Complex

Q.2: (a) Complex sentences – dependent clause – until the phone rings, independent clause – stay in the bath.

(b) Complex sentences – independent clauses – leave, dependent clause – while you can.

(c) Complex Sentences independent clauses – the human brain never stops working dependent clauses – until you stand up to speak in public.

(d) Compound sentences- – independent clause (1) – I like tea – independent clause (2)- he likes coffee.

(e) Compound sentences independent clause.

(1) I drove to the park, independent clause

(2) I walked to the beach.

(f) Compound sentences independent clause.

(1) Sarah walked to class, independent clause.

(2) Kevin van.

(g) Compound sentence, dependent clause – Even through it was a long trip independent clause – they came to island in canoes.

(h) Complex sentence – dependent clause. Since I had no milk, independent clause- I’ll go to the store.

Q.3: (a) The girl said that it gave her great pleasure to be there that evening.

(b) The man said that he must go as soon as possible.

(c) He said that he had won.

(d) She said that she did not want to see any of them and asked them to go away.

(e) The teacher says that if you work hard you will pass.

(f) He proposed that they should wait for her return.

(g) Alice exclaimed how clever she was.

(h) The young man asked which way she had gone.

(i) She requested them to wait there till she reburned.

(j) He asked me where I was going.

Q.4: (a) She was not beaten by me.

(b) This experience will never be forgotten by me.

(c) A cake was made by mother yesterday by me.

(d) The girl was teased by the boy.

(e) Was her duty done by her?

(f) The deer was being chased by the tiger.

(g) A novel was written by her.

(h) Her lessons have been learned by her.

(i) Has the report been finished by you.

(j) The thief has been caught by the police.

(k) The work has been completed by my brother.

(l) My pen was stolen by somebody yesterday.

(m) The match may be won by our team.

(n) Patients are looked after by nurses.

Q.5: (a) His own friends are deceiving him.

(b) The people welcomed Prince Hamlet.

(c) The committee has rejected the proposal.

(d) They have given me much cause for anxiety.

(e) Have you carried out my orders?

(f) We/he/she/they eagerly listened to the story.

(g) We waste our lives in anticipation.

(h) The storm uprooted the tree.

(i) The police took the wounded persons to the hospital.

(j) Who wrote this piece of composition?

(k) Columbus discovered America.

(l) Do you teach John?

*This article contains all topics about Types of Sentences BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTING

For notes on all CA foundation topics, you can visit this article CA foundation note

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