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Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning Mcom Sem 1 Delhi University Complete Notes

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning Mcom Sem 1 Delhi University Complete Notes

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :  Here we provide direct download links for Types Of Investment Options  For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University notes in pdf format. Download these Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Complete notes in pdf format and read well.

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning Mcom Sem 1 Delhi University Complete Notes

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning Mcom Sem 1 Delhi University : In the financial industry, there are two concepts that form the basis of most transactional activities. One is savings and the other is investments. There is a huge overlap between the two concepts though, it terms of execution.

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :Investment in terms of financial context, means any money that is spent today in the hope of financial benefits that may be reaped in a future time frame. Any investment is the act of buying or creating assets with an expectation that the same would yield interest earnings or dividend or capital appreciation or any other return that is profitable as compared to the money put in initially. Almost all investments are differentiated from other kinds of transactions based on the aim of the money spent. Money spent on making investments is primarily with the aim of obtaining some sort of return in a specific period of time.

A lot of times people confuse savings with investments. Savings and investment are different from each other in their approach of utilizing the money involved. While saving may be understood as a passive way of accumulating wealth, investment can be seen as a more aggressive way of securing returns. Mostly, under savings, customers avail a savings account and stash away cash in that account. This cash can be used as and when required by the account holder.

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Types of Investment

  • Investments

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Investments made in the finance industry can be divided into two distinct types namely, Traditional and Alternative. Let us look into each of these types one by one and see what investment categories fall into which type.

Traditional Investments

Investing in well-known financial products falls into the category of traditional investments. These include bonds, shares, real estate etc. These are categories which are quite popular among investors as active investment strategies to make your money grow. Following are the investment products that fall under the category of traditional investment.

    • Bonds

A Bond can be understood as an IOU which is issued by an issuer (borrower) and to a lender. Generally, bonds are instruments used by public and private sector enterprises to raise huge sums of money which any bank is incapable of lending. These bonds are then issued in the public market by the borrowing entity and are bought by lenders for specific amounts of money. Thousands of lenders then come together to lend the required amount and the borrowing organization is able to raise capital for its operational or growth purposes.

However, since money is being lent to the issuer of bonds, there is also an interest component involved that is paid back to the investor in turn for his/her money. This interest is paid at a predetermined rate and for a specific period of time. Bonds fall under the category of fixed income securities since the interest on these can be exactly calculated for the time for which the bond is held. Bonds fall under the debt category and are therefore, comparatively safer financial instruments to invest in. However, with all financial tools risk is inversely proportional to returns and as such the low-risk attribute of this tool makes it a low return instrument as well.

    • Stocks

Stocks or equity are shares that are issued by companies and are bought by the general public. This offers an avenue to companies to raise funds. Stocks entitle a customer ownership of a company. Shares, stocks and equity all imply the same thing. Shares are one of the most popular investment avenues in the world. This is because the returns offered by stocks is generally higher than any other financial instrument. However, to balance out the high return associated with stocks, the risk associated with these products is also quite high.

Any business may issues different types of shares based on the financial urgency and need. In exchange for the money, shareholders are issued Stock certificates.

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :

Stocks are mostly divided into two basic types, common stocks and preferred stocks.

    • Small saving schemesSmall savings is another popular savings tool in the Indian financial market. The name itself suggests that these tools are meant for saving money in small amounts. The idea behind this financial tool is to enable the habit of saving in people from almost all economic sections. Some of the most common small savings tools are Sukanya Samriddhi Scheme, EPF (Employees Provident Fund), NPS (National Pension Scheme, Kisan Vikas Patra, Personal Provident Fund (PPF) etc. Almost all small savings schemes are initiated and facilitated by the government so as to enhance the spread and penetration of savings schemes in the country. Let us look into some of the most prominent schemes out of these.Employees Provident FundEmployees Provident Fund is another small savings scheme that is primarily offered by your employer. This includes salaried individuals of both private and public organizations. Any company with a workforce of more than 20 employees is mandated to register for the EPF scheme. Around 12% each month is deducted from the salary and contributed towards the EPF account of an employee. This EPF account is maintained by the Employees Provident Fund Organization, commonly known as the EPFO. The amount deposited towards EPF is eligible for tax exemption under section 80C of the Income Tax Act.Sukanya Samriddhi SchemeSukanya Samriddhi Yojana is a special scheme which has been launched by the central government to facilitate the financial wellbeing of girl child in the country. This scheme can be availed by parents or legal guardian of a girl child and an amount as low as Rs.1000 per annum can be deposited under the scheme. The account matures only after the girl child reaches the age of 21. Premature withdrawal is allowed only after the girl reaches the age of 18 years and has financial need pertaining to wedding or education.National Pension SchemeNational pension Scheme is one of the most popular schemes for ensuring a regular pension amount to individuals working in both the private and the public sector. NPS is offered to individuals either as part of their corporate perks or is availed by individuals on their own. The amount set aside towards NPS is eligible for tax rebate under section 80C of the Income Tax Act. The scheme offers withdrawal of deposited amount only once the account holder reaches the age of 60 years. The corpus withdrawn on maturity is absolutely tax-free.
    • Mutual Funds

Mutual funds are financial instruments that are professionally managed and that invest money on behalf of any investor, in different securities. These mutual funds are classified into various types based on the type of securities that they invest in. Some of the most popular mutual fund types are balanced funds, stock funds, open-ended funds etc. These funds are classified based on their percentage allocation in different securities. So, an equity fund invests purely is equity and is a high risk high return product while a debt fund invests purely in debt and money market instruments and is hence a low risk low return financial product.

    • Fixed Deposits

As the name itself indicates, fixed deposits are financial instruments that are one of the oldest and safest ways to save money. These are not necessarily active investment tools, but are rather a passive way to save and earn returns. A fixed amount of money is kept aside with a financial institution for a fixed number of days or months or years. In turn, interest is earned on this money. The rate of interest differs with the deposit tenure and also with the banking entity.

Similar to fixed deposit is the concept of recurring deposit. However, the only point of difference in the two investment tools is that while a lump-sum amount needs to be fixed in case of fixed deposit, a smaller amount needs to be deposited at regular intervals in case of a recurring deposit. Hence, customers who do not have a large chunk of money to fix in a single go can opt for a recurring deposit wherein money is usually deposited monthly for a specific deposit tenure. The rate of interest earned on recurring deposit is similar and comparable to that earned on fixed deposit.

    • Real Estate

Property rates are soaring with every passing day which has made real estate a hot investment avenue for investors. Buying, selling and leasing of property offers substantial returns to investors. Appreciation of property makes real estate a good investment tool. With urbanization gaining ground rapidly, real estate prices in certain major cities like Mumbai, Bangalore, New Delhi, are skyrocketing. This has made these places hot hubs for real estate investors. Most investors take loans from banks to purchase real estate and then lease out or sell the same property to enjoy returns offered due to appreciation in price of the property.

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :

Alternative Investments

Alternative Investments are those that are not regular investments like stocks, bonds etc. These are investments made in order to acquire jewelry, precious metals etc. which are expected to yield returns in future. Hedge funds, some real estate types, venture capital and derivatives also form a part of alternative investment. Alternative investments are so called due to their non-traditional as well as complex nature. Also, another distinguishing feature of alternative investments is relatively low liquidity and well as very high minimum investment limits.

While a common investor may not access alternative investments like hedge funds or derivatives due to their complex nature, others like gold and real estate are available to even the common man. Let us look into some of the most prominent alternative investment tools known to investors.

    • Hedge Funds

These can be understood as a professionally managed private investment company or partnership structure. Techniques to manage the fund can be those that are not commonly allowed for SEC regulated companies. Hedge funds invest in both financial derivatives and/or publicly traded securities. These are popular as an alternative investment tool owing to their high leverage and high returns. However, they are characterized by high fees as well as low liquidity. It is seen that managers of hedge funds generally have a personal stake in the fund.

    • Private Equity

Private equity is trading in shares of an operating company that is not publicly listed and whose shares are not available on the stock market. Institutional investors employ various strategies to indulge in private equity trading. Private equity is popular since it offers diversification of financial portfolio by allowing investment in avenues that are not tightly coupled to normal investments.

    • Venture Capital

Venture Capital is one of the most popular investment strategies currently being deployed by investors in the Indian start-up scene. The idea behind this investment strategy is to invest substantial capital in a budding company in return for stocks of the same. This is done with companies who are either in their initiation phase or in their growth phase. Venture capitalism is generally based on ideas that find substance with the investors or any new technology that the investors feel might take the market by storm in future.

    • Managed Futures

This type alternative investment involves managers using futures also as part of their investment portfolio. Managed futures are a great tool to offer portfolio diversification and therefore are a great alternative to minimize risk and maximize returns. In general, a managed futures account will have sufficient exposure to different markets like energy, agriculture, commodities, currency etc.

    • Structured Products

Structured products are alternative investment tools that generally combine two or more financial instruments to make a packaged investment strategy in a single product. Most often, derivatives are combined with securities or with other derivatives. Structured products have a fixed maturity date like bonds. These offer a convenient strategy to implement a complex investment strategy across various financial products.

    • Collectible items

Collecting artifacts that have substantial value and those that have historical and artistic significance is one of the most difficult types of alternative investments. This requires knowledge of the article that you are purchasing. Mostly, collectibles like stamps, jewelry, boats, planes, art works etc. tend to appreciate in value and are considered good and profitable assets to own. The value of artifacts is generally expected to appreciate and keep pace with inflation and hence collectibles make a good form of alternative investment.

There are a few more alternative investment instruments available in the financial world.

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University Complete Notes

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :  There are many types of investments and investing styles to choose from. Mutual funds, ETFs, individual stocks and bonds, closed-end mutual funds, real estate, various alternative investments and owning all or part of a business are just a few examples.


Buying shares of stock represents ownership in the company and the opportunity to participate in the company’s success via increases in the stock’s price plus and dividends that the company might declare. Shareholders have a claim on the company’s assets.

Holders of common stock have voting rights at shareholders’ meetings and the right to receive dividends if they are declared. Holders of preferred stock don’t have voting rights, but do receive preference in terms of the payment of any dividends over common shareholders. They also have a higher claim on company assets than holders of common stock.


Bonds are debt instruments whereby an investor effectively is loaning money to a company or agency (the issuer) in exchange for periodic interest payments plus the return of the bond’s face amount when the bond matures. Bonds are issued by corporations, the federal government plus many states, municipalities and governmental agencies.

A typical corporate bond might have a face value of $1,000 and pay interest semi-annually. Interest on these bonds are fully taxable, but interest on municipal bonds is exempt from federal taxes and may be exempt from state taxes for residents of the issuing state. Interest on Treasuries are taxed at the federal level only.

Bonds can be purchased as new offerings or on the secondary market, just like stocks. A bond’s value can rise and fall based on a number of factors, the most important being the direction of interest rates. Bond prices move inversely with the direction of interest rates.

Mutual funds

A mutual fund is a pooled investment vehicle managed by an investment manager that allows investors to have their money invested in stocks, bonds or other investment vehicles as stated in the fund’s prospectus.

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :

Mutual funds are valued at the end of trading day and any transactions to buy or sell shares are executed after the market close as well.

Mutual funds can passively track stock or bond market indexes such as the S&P 500, the Barclay’s Aggregate Bond Index and many others. Other mutual funds are actively managed where the manager actively selects the stocks, bonds or other investments held by the fund. Actively managed mutual funds are generally more costly to own. A fund’s underlying expenses serve to reduce the net investment returns to the mutual fund shareholders.

Mutual funds can make distributions in the form of dividends, interest and capital gains. These distributions will be taxable if held in a non-retirement account. Selling a mutual fund can result in a gain or loss on the investment, just as with individual stocks or bonds.

Mutual funds allow small investors to instantly buy diversified exposure to a number of investment holdings within the fund’s investment objective. For instance, a foreign stock mutual might hold 50 or 100 or more different foreign stocks in the portfolio. An initial investment as low as $1,000 (or less in some cases) might allow an investor to own all the underlying holdings of the fund. Mutual funds are a great way for investors large and small to achieve a level of instant diversification.

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :


ETFs or exchange-traded funds are like mutual funds in many respects, but are traded on the stock exchange during the trading day just like shares of stock. Unlike mutual funds which are valued at the end of each trading day, ETFs are valued constantly while the markets are open.

Many ETFs track passive market indexes like the S&P 500, the Barclay’s Aggregate Bond Index, and the Russell 2000 index of small cap stocks and many others.

In recent years, actively managed ETFs have come into being, as have so-called smart beta ETFs which create indexes based on “factors” such as quality, low volatility and momentum.

Types Of Investment Options For Financial Planning MCOM Sem 1 Delhi University :

Alternative investments

Beyond stocks, bonds, mutual funds and ETFs, there are many other ways to invest. We will discuss a few of these here.

Real estate investments can be made by buying a commercial or residential property directly. Real estate investment trusts (REITs) pool investor’s money and purchase properties. REITS are traded like stocks. There are mutual funds and ETFs that invest in REITs as well.

Hedge funds and private equity also fall into the category of alternative investments, although they are only open to those who meet the income and net worth requirements of being an accredited investor. Hedge funds may invest almost anywhere and may hold up better than conventional investment vehicles in turbulent markets.

Private equity allows companies to raise capital without going public. There are also private real estate funds that offer shares to investors in a pool of properties. Often alternatives have restrictions in terms of how often investors can have access to their money.

In recent years, alternative strategies have been introduced in mutual fund and ETF formats, allowing for lower minimum investments and great liquidity for investors. These vehicles are known as liquid alternatives.

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