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# Rajasthan University Mcom Notes Helps For 2017 Exams

## Rajasthan University Mcom Notes Helps For 2017 Exams

Rajasthan University Mcom Notes :  Master  of  Commerce is  popularly  known as  M.com  course.M.com  course  is  a  postgraduate programme which is mostly done by students after  their  graduation  in  Commerce.  The Master  of  Commerce  typically  requires  two years  of  full­ time  study.   The  syllabus  is usually  concentrated  on  one  subject  area such  as  accounting,  business  management, corporate  governance,  finance,  human  resource management,  actuarial  science,  economics,  statistics  and  marketing  or  supply  chain  management.

### Rajasthan University Mcom Notes Helps For 2017 Exams

Rajasthan University Mcom Notes : Here we provides you complete details of Rajasthan University Mcom Notes Helps For 2017 Exams in pdf format. Download these Rajasthan University Mcom Notes and read well.

#### 1. Rajasthan University Mcom Business Statistics Notes

Business statistics is the science of good decision making in the face of uncertainty and is used in many disciplines such as financial analysis, econometrics , auditing, production and operations including services improvement and marketing research”.

These sources feature regular repetitive publication of series of data. This makes the topic of time series especially important for business statistics. It is also a branch of applied statistics working mostly on data collected as a by-product of doing business or by government agencies. It provides knowledge and skills to interpret and use statistical techniques in a variety of business applications.

A typical business statistics course is intended for business majors, and covers statistical study, descriptive statistics (collection, description, analysis, and summary of data), probability, and the binomial and normal distributions, test of hypotheses and confidence intervals, linear regression, and correlation.

Rajasthan University Mcom Notes :

#### Time series

A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order. Most commonly, a time series is a sequence taken at successive equally spaced points in time. Thus it is a sequence of discrete-time data. Examples of time series are heights of ocean tides, counts of sunspots, and the daily closing value of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

Time series are very frequently plotted via line charts. Time series are used in statistics, signal processing, pattern recognition, econometric, mathematical finance, weather forecasting, intelligent transport and trajectory forecasting , earthquake prediction, electroencephalography, control engineering, astronomy, communications engineering, and largely in any domain of applied science and engineering which involves temporal measurements.

Time series analysis comprises methods for analyzing time series data in order to extract meaningful statistics and other characteristics of the data. Time series forecasting is the use of a model to predict future values based on previously observed values. While regression analysis is often employed in such a way as to test theories that the current values of one or more independent time series affect the current value of another time series, this type of analysis of time series is not called “time series analysis”, which focuses on comparing values of a single time series or multiple dependent time series at different points in time. Interrupted time series analysis is the analysis of interventions on a single time series.

#### Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as “all people living in a country” or “every atom composing a crystal.” Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole. An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation.

Rajasthan University Mcom Notes :

#### 2. Rajasthan University Mcom Managerial Accounting Notes

In management accounting or managerial accounting, managers use the provisions of accounting information in order to better inform themselves before they decide matters within their organizations, which aids their management and performance of control functions.

decision-making information to managers.

According to the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA): “Management accounting is a profession that involves partnering in management decision making, devising planning and performance management systems, and providing expertise in financial reporting and control to assist management in the formulation and implementation of an organization’s strategy

The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) states that management accounting as practice extends to the following three areas:

• Strategic management—advancing the role of the management accountant as a strategic partner in the organization.
• Performance management—developing the practice of business decision-making and managing the performance of the organization.
• Risk management—contributing to frameworks and practices for identifying, measuring, managing and reporting risks to the achievement of the objectives of the organization.

The Institute of Certified Management Accountants (CMA) states “A management accountant applies his or her professional knowledge and skill in the preparation and presentation of financial and other decision oriented information in such a way as to assist management in the formulation of policies and in the planning and control of the operation of the undertaking”.

Management accountants are seen as the “value-creators” amongst the accountants. They are more concerned with forward looking and taking decisions that will affect the future of the organization, than in the historical recording and compliance (score keeping) aspects of the profession. Management accounting knowledge and experience can be obtained from varied fields and functions within an organization, such as information management, treasury, efficiency auditing, marketing, valuation, pricing and logistics. In 2014 CIMA created the Global Management Accounting Principles (GMAPs). The result of research from across 20 countries in five continents, the principles aim to guide best practice in the discipline.

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Rajasthan University Mcom Notes :

#### 3. Rajasthan University Mcom Financial management and Policy Notes

Highly respected for its effective integration of financial theory and practice, this classic book explores the rapidly evolving and exciting theory of finance as it relates to a corporation’s investment in assets, financing, and dividends, explains the ways in which analytical techniques are brought to bear on financial decision making, and supplies the institutional material necessary for a solid understanding of the environment in which financial decisions are made.

New cases are added, highlighting for readers major issues in financial analysis, valuation, and financing. Extensively revised coverage of relevant topics throughout provides new and updated information on topics such as efficient markets, share repurchase, empirical evidence, electronic funds transfers, loan pricing, private placements, tax treatment of preferred-stock dividends and tax-deductible preferred stock, exotic securities used in corporate finance, and many others. Financial analysis and analytical techniques are discussed in conjunction, applying these topics as they relate to financial decision making with an emphasis on formulating alternatives, analyzing them, and reaching a decision. An excellent resource for professionals in positions such as treasurer, controller, banker, investment banker, investment manager, or chief financial officer.

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Rajasthan University Mcom Notes :

#### 4. Rajasthan University Mcom International Business Notes

International business can be defined as the study of multinational companies. One of the first scholars to engage in developing a theory of multinational companies was Stephen Hymer. Throughout his academic life he developed theories that sought to explain foreign direct investment and why firms become multinational.

There were three phases in Hymer’s work. The first phase was his dissertation in 1960 called the International Operations of National Firms. In this thesis, Hymer departs from neoclassical theory and opens up a new area of international production. At first Hymer started analyzing neoclassical theory and the financial investment wherein the main reason for capital movement is difference in interest rates. Then he started analyzing the characteristics of foreign investment by large companies for production and direct business purposes, calling this Foreign Direct Investment. By analyzing the two types of investments Hymer distinguished financial investment from direct investment. The main distinguishing feature was control. Where in portfolio investment is a more passive approach, and the main purpose is financial gain, with foreign direct investment a firm has control over the operations abroad. So the traditional theory of investment based on differential interest rates does not explain the motivations for FDI.

According to Hymer there are two main determinants of FDI wherein an imperfect market structure is the key element. The first is the firm specific advantages which are developed at the specific companies home country and, profitably, used in the foreign country. The second determinant is the removal of control wherein Hymer wrote: ‘’When firms are interconnected, they compete in selling in the same market or one of the firms may sell to the other,’’ and because of this ‘‘it may be profitable to substitute centralised decision making for decentralised decision making’’

Rajasthan University Mcom Notes :

#### Physical and social factors of competitive business and social environment

The conduct of international operations depends on a company’s objectives and the means with which they carry them out. The operations affect and are affected by the physical and societal factors and the competitive environment.

#### Operations

• Objectives: sales expansion, resource acquisition, risk minimization, diversification of their revenue stream

#### Types of operations

Exports and imports of merchandise:

• Service exports and imports
• Merchandise exports: goods exported, not including services.
• Merchandise imports: The import goods are the ones brought into a country.
• Service exports and imports are not product purchasing. It is only about services. Services exports and imports can be divided into three most important categories
• “Tourism and transportation, service performance, asset use”.
• Exports and Imports of products, goods or services are usually a country’s most important international economic transactions.

Rajasthan University Mcom Notes :

#### Choice of entry mode in international business

Strategic variables impact the choice of entry mode for multinational corporation expansion beyond their domestic markets. These variables are global concentration, global synergies, and global strategic motivations of MNC.

• Global concentration: many MNC share and overlap markets with a limited number of other corporations in the same industry.
• Global synergies: the reuse or sharing of resources by a corporation and may include marketing departments or other inputs that can be used in multiple markets.
• Global strategic motivations: other factors beyond entry mode that are the basic reasons for corporate expansion into an additional market. These are strategic reasons that may include establishing a foreign outpost for expansion, developing sourcing sites among other strategic reasons.

• Entry modes: Export/import, wholly owned subsidiary, merger or acquisition, alliances and joint ventures, licensing (listed in order of least to most risky)
• Modes: importing and exporting, tourism and transportation, licensing and franchising, turnkey operations, management contracts, direct investment and portfolio investments.
• Functions: marketing, global manufacturing and supply chain management, accounting, finance, human resources
• Overlaying alternatives: choice of countries, organization and control mechanisms

#### Physical and social factors

• Geographical influences: There are many different geographical factors that affect international business. In fact, the geographical size, the climatic challenges happening lately, the natural resources available on a specific territory, the population distribution in a country, etc. are some of the influences that have an effect on the international trade.
• Social factors: Political policies: political disputes, particularly, that result in the military confrontation can disrupt trade and investment.
• Legal policies: domestic and international laws play a big role in determining how a company can operate overseas.
• Behavioural factors: in a foreign environment, the related disciplines such as anthropology, psychology, and sociology are helpful for managers to get a better understanding of values, attitudes and beliefs.
• Economic forces: economics explains country differences in costs, currency values,and market size.

#### Risks

• Strategic

A firm must be prepared, aware of the competition and ready to face it in the international market. Several companies (competitors) could substitute for products or services of an unpopular firm. A brilliant and innovative strategy will help a firm succeed.

• Operational risk

A company has to be conscious about the production costs in order to not waste time and money. If the expenditures and costs are controlled, it will create an efficient production and help the internationalization.

• Political risk

How a government governs a country can affect the operations of a firm. The government might be corrupt, hostile, totalitarian, etc., and has a negative image around the globe. A firm’s reputation can change if it operates in a country controlled by that type of government. Also, an unstable political situation can be a risk for multinational firms. Elections or any political event that is unexpected can change a country’s situation and put a firm in an awkward position.

• Technological risk

Technological progress brings many benefits, but some disadvantages, including “lack of security in electronic transactions, the cost of developing new technology … the fact that this new technology may fail, and, when all of these are coupled with the outdated existing technology, [the fact that] the result may create a dangerous effect in doing business in the international arena.”

• Environmental Risk

Companies that establish a subsidiary or factory abroad need to be conscious about the externalities they will produce. Negative externalities can be noise, pollution, etc. The population might want to fight against the company to keep a natural and healthy environment/country. This situation can change the customer’s perception of the firm and create a negative image of it.

• Economic risk

These are the economic risks explained by Professor Okolo: “This comes from the inability of a country to meet its financial obligations. The changing of foreign-investment or/and domestic fiscal or monetary policies. The effect of exchange-rate and interest rate make it difficult to conduct international business.” Moreover, it can be a risk for a company to operate in a country and they may experience an unexpected economic crisis after establishing the subsidiary.

• Financial risk

According to Professor Okolo: “This area is affected by the currency exchange rate, government flexibility in allowing the firms to repatriate profits or funds outside the country. The devaluation and inflation will also impact the firm’s ability to operate at an efficient capacity and still be stable.” Furthermore, the taxes that a company has to pay might be advantageous or not. It might be higher or lower in the host countries. Then “the risk that a government will discriminatorily change the laws, regulations, or contracts governing an investment—or will fail to enforce them—in a way that reduces an investor’s financial returns is what we call ‘policy risk.'”

• Terrorism

A terrorist attack against a company or country is meant to hurt or damage it by violence. It is hate that pushes people to do it and it is usually based on religion, culture, political ideas, etc. The World Trade Center attack on 9/11 is an example of a terrorist attack that affected the United States and also companies that were established in these buildings., it can be hard to operate where the environment is tense and scary and in countries that are likely to be attacked.

• Planning risk
• Price risk
• Customer satisfaction risk
• Mismanagement risks
• Competitive risks
• Location risks

A company has to choose the right location for the subsidiary abroad. It needs to make the right choice before outsourcing or offshoring its activities. There are many criteria to take into account: If there is enough of a labor force to work for the firm, what the regulations are, what the laws and policies of the host country are, if the area is safe, etc. It is important to know the data of the host country, such as the crime rate. Also, are the host country citizens willing to have this foreign company on their territory or not?

• Bribery

Bribery is a worldwide phenomenon. Multinational enterprises must be conscious and concerned about it. Companies operating on the international market have a role in combating bribery, as do governments, trade unions, etc. The countries participating in international trade need to prevent bribery, not support it, offer it, give it, promise it, etc. Societal risk