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Logical reasoning Statement and Assumptions notes-CSEET

Logical reasoning Statement and Assumptions notes-CSEET

Logical reasoning Statement and Assumptions:

ICSI CSEET: The Council of the ICSI has released a notice regarding CSEET on the day of the inauguration of ICSI Golden Jubilee Celebrations on 4th Oct 2017.

The Gazette Notification on the Company Secretaries (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 has been published on 3rd February 2020 in the Official Gazette of India and the same shall be applicable from the said date of publication.

Now ICSI Published a notice regarding CSEET Test which going to start from 2020 May.

We are now going to discuss the details of CSEET Paper-2 Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning – Logical reasoning Statement and Assumptions notes.

Logical reasoning Statement and Assumptions

Logical reasoning Statement and Assumptions

Logical reasoning Statement and Assumptions:

Logical Reasoning (LR) is an integral part of Competitive Exams. It is designed to measure a person’s ability to draw logical conclusions based on statements or arguments, and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of those arguments. It is important to keep in mind that the statements and assumptions in logical reasoning might defy your expectations rooted in the real world,

For instance, eating a lot makes you lose weight.

Rahul has lost weight.

Rahul eats a lot.

This goes against the knowledge that eating a lot leads to obesity, but within the limits of logical reasoning, this is a valid argument.

Statements, Premises, Assumptions, Conclusion are some of the terms associated with logical reasoning and you will be tested on these in IIFT, CAT, XAT, NMAT and MAT Exams.

  1. Statement

In logic, a statement is either a meaningful declarative sentence that is either true or false, or that which a true or false declarative sentence asserts. For instance,

‘Socrates is a mortal’, ‘Delhi is the capital of India.’

A statement is different from a sentence. A sentence is one form of a statement, whereas there may be several ways of formulating the same statement. For instance,

‘All men are mortal’

‘Every man is mortal’,

are two different sentences that form the same statement.

  1. Assumption

An assumption is an unstated premise that supports the conclusion. Both premise and assumption are unquestionable facts but the assumption, unlike the premise, is not explicitly stated and needs to be deciphered. Assumption is something that is taken for granted in the context of a statement. For instance, ‘All kids are happy when they get new gadgets. Vicky will be thrilled when he gets the new mobile phone.’ In this, the assumption is that Vicky is a kid. Without this assumption, the argument will make no sense.

  1. Statement- Assumption

Questions with statements and assumptions are common in the logical reasoning section of entrance examinations such as, CAT, IIFT, XAT, MAT and NMAT. Most questions on Statement and Assumptions include a statement followed by further statements, which have to be tested for whether they are implied in the given statement or not. For instance:

Statement- A big retail store was attacked by vegetable vendors in Amritsar.

Assumptions – i. The store has affected the livelihood of local vegetable vendors. ii. The store is built in thickly populated areas.

Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumption is implicit.

The answer to this will be the first assumption, because the store is affecting the vendors, which causes the attack. Assumption ii is irrelevant because nothing is mentioned regarding the location of the store.

  1. Statement – “Please switch off the mobile phones while you are in the theatre”, a notice outside a theatre.

Assumption – i. Every viewer who enters the theatre keeps mobile phones.

  1. Switched on mobile phones might distract the performers.

In this, assumption ii is implied by the given statement.

Statement and assumptions are crucial concepts to understand thoroughly, for doing well in the logical reasoning section.

Rules

  • Assumption is always Indefinite & Positive
  • Some, to large extent, many, much , exist in the assumption
  • Some words like only, each, any, every, all, question indicating word (why, these, what), Answer indicating words (therefore), Definitely, But, Certainly exist in the assumption that assumption will always be explicit (False).
  • Some words like some, to large extent, many, much, exist in the assumption that assumption will always be implicit (True).
  • Any assumption that is conveying the message of advertisement, notice, appeal that assumption will always be implicit (True).
  • Any assumption that is talking about the social welfare (positive), govt. policies that assumption will always be implicit (True).
  • If any assumption is talking about past & future that assumption will always be explicit (False).
  • If any assumption showing the word like suggestion, order, request that will always be implicit (True). Restatement is never implicit.
  • Comparison always wrong.

Example:

#1 Statement:

Everybody loves reading adventure stories Assumption:

Adventures stories are the only reading material.

Nobody loves Reading any other material.

#2

Statement:. “If you want to study account join institute Y”,A advice to B.

Assumption:

Institute Y provides good account education.

B listen to A advice.

#3

Statement: The college administration has instructed all the students to stop using cell phone within the college premises.

Assumption:

The student may stop using cell phone in the college premises The student may continue to use cell phone in the college premises.

#4

Statement: Read the Notice before entering the club Assumption:

People are literate.

Club is not for blind person.

#5

Statement: ABC is the only magazine that provides good notes on Reasoning & Mathematics. Assumption:

It will have some effect on those who read.

People always wait for latest Notes on reasoning & Mathematics.

#6

Statement: If you are a classical singer we have challenging job for you.

Assumption:

We need a classical singer You are a classical singer.

#7

Statement: Like a mad man I decided to follow him.

Assumption:

I am a mad man.

I am not a mad man.

#8

Statement: All the workers are here by instructed to reach the factory by 8:30 am. Assumption:

Some of the worker will not arrived at the factory in time.

Worker will follow the strict warning in the notice.

#9

Statement: You can’t solve syllogism question without constructing a diagram (Venn).Difficult question of syllogism need Venn diagram solving, A teacher tells his students.

Assumption:

The students are not intelligent.

Problem cannot be solved.

 

Sample Questions

Directions to Solve

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Give answer

(A)  If only assumption I is implicit

(B)  If only assumption II is implicit

(C)  If either I or II is implicit

(D)  If neither I nor II is implicit

(E)  If both I and II are implicit.

  1. Statement : “You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation.” – A line in an appointment letter.

Assumptions

The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer. Generally an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer : Option E

Explanation

The performance of the individual has to be tested over a span of time as the statement mentions. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions that the individual’s worth shall be reviewed (during probation period) before confirmation. So, II is also implicit.

  1. Statement

It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 5 or so.

Assumptions

At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.

The schools do not admit children after six years of age.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: Option A

Explanation

Since the statement talks of putting the child in school at the age of 5, it means that the child is mentally prepared for the same at this age. So, I is implicit. But nothing about admission after 6 years of age is mentioned in the statement. So, II is not implicit.

  1. Statement : “In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance to our employees.” – In charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.

Assumptions

Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality.

Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: Option B

Explanation

Assumption I goes against the statement. So, it is not implicit. The allowance will serve as a reward to the employees and shall provoke them to come on time. So, II is implicit.

  1. Statement : Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.

Assumptions

There are unemployed youth in India who needs monetary support.

The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer : Option A

Explanation

I directly follow from the statement, so is implicit. Also, the statement is a suggestion and does not tell about a government policy or its position of funds. So, II is not implicit.

  1. Statement : “If you trouble me, I will slap you.” – A mother warns her child.

Assumptions

With the warning, the child may stop troubling her.

All children are basically naughty.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer : Option A

Explanation :

The mother warns her child with the expectation that he would stop troubling her. So, I is implicit. The general nature of children cannot be derived from the statement. So, II is not implicit.

  1. Statement : The State government has decided to appoint four thousand primary school teachers during the next financial year.

Assumptions

There are enough schools in the state to accommodate four thousand additional primary school teachers.

The eligible candidates may not be interested to apply as the government may not finally appoint such a large number of primary school teachers.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer : Option A

Explanation

Such decisions as given in the statement are taken only after taking the existing vacancies into consideration. So, I implicit while II isn’t.

  1. Statement : A warning in a train compartment – “To stop train, pull chain. Penalty for improper use Rs. 500.”

Assumptions

Some people misuse the alarm chain.

On certain occasions, people may want to stop a running train.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer : Option E

Explanation

Clearly, the penalty is imposed to prevent people from misusing the alarm chain. This means that some people misuse it. So, I is implicit. The alarm chain is provided to stop the running train in times of urgency. So, II is also implicit.

  1. Statement : If it is easy to become an engineer, I don’t want to be an engineer.

Assumptions

An individual aspires to be professional.

One desires to achieve a thing which is hard earned.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer : Option B

Explanation

Clearly, nothing is mentioned about the professional nature of the job. So, I is not implicit. The statement hints that one rejects a thing that is easy to achieve. So, II is implicit.

  1. Statement : The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill stations has been cancelled because it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.

Assumptions

Railways should give concession only to needy persons.

Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill stations.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer : Option A

Explanation

The statement mentions that concessions should not be given to people who can afford to spend holidays in hill stations. This means they should be given only to needy persons. So, I is implicit. But, II does not follow from the statement and is not implicit.

  1. Statement : “The bridge was built at the cost of Rs. 128 crore and even civil bus service is not utilizing it, what a pity to see it grossly underutilized.” – A citizen’s view on a new flyover linking east and west sides of a suburb.

Assumptions

The building of such bridges does not serve any public objective.

There has to be some accountability and utility of money spent on public projects.

  1. Only assumption I is implicit
  2. Only assumption II is implicit
  3. Either I or II is implicit
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit
  5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer : Option B

Explanation

Clearly, the statement expresses grave concern over a newly-built flyover not being utilized by public. This implies that such projects need to be taken up only after working out their utility and that the huge expenditure incurred on building such structures is worthwhile only if they prove useful for the public. Thus, only II is implicit.

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