Landmark Amendments in Constitution of India notes – CSEET
Landmark Amendments in Constitution of India:
ICSI CSEET: The Council of the ICSI has released a notice regarding CSEET on the day of the inauguration of ICSI Golden Jubilee Celebrations on 4th Oct 2017.
The Gazette Notification on the Company Secretaries (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 has been published on 3rd February 2020 in the Official Gazette of India and the same shall be applicable from the said date of publication.
Now ICSI Published a notice regarding CSEET Test which going to start from 2020 May.
We are now going to discuss the details of CSEET Paper-2 Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning – Landmark Amendments in Constitution of India notes.
Landmark Amendments in Constitution of India
MAJOR CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 1951 – 2019
The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951
— Added Ninth Schedule to protect the land reform and other laws included in it from the judicial review.
— Added three more grounds of restrictions on freedom of speech and expression, viz., public order, friendly relations with foreign states and incitement to an offence. Also, made the restrictions ‘reasonable’ and thus, justiciable in nature.
— Empowered the state to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward classes.
The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952
The scale of representation in the Lok Sabha by providing that one member could represent even more than 7, 50,000 persons.
Constitution (Forty – Second Amendment) Act, 1976
— It is also known as Mini-Constitution. It was enacted to give effect to the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee).
— Added three new words (i.e., socialist, secular and integrity) in the Preamble.
— Added Fundamental Duties by the citizens (new Part IV A).
— Made the president bound by the advice of the cabinet.
— Added three new Directive Principles viz., equal justice and free legal aid, participation of workers in the management of industries.
— Shifted five subjects from the state list to the concurrent list, viz, education, forests, protection of wild animals and birds, weights and measures and administration of justice, constitution and organisation of all courts except the Supreme Court and the high courts.
— Empowered the Centre to deploy its armed forces in any state to deal with a grave situation of law and order.
Constitution (Fifty – Second Amendment) Act, 1985
— This amendment popularly known as Anti-Defection Law
— Provided for disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection and added a new Tenth Schedule containing the details in this regard.
Constitution (Sixty – First Amendment) Act, 1989
Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly elections.
Constitution (Sixty – Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991
Accorded a special status to the Union Territory of Delhi by designing it as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act, 1989
Provided for the inclusion of the members of the Legislative Assemblies of National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry in the Electoral College for the election of the president.
Constitution (Eighty-Fourth Amendment) Act, 2001
The number of seats in the Lok Sabha and the assemblies are to remain same till 2026.
Constitution (Eighty-Sixth Amendment) Act, 2002
— Made elementary education a fundamental right. Added Article 21-A which declares that “the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may determine”.
— Changed the subject matter of Article 45 in Directive Principles. It now reads—“The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years”.
— Added a new fundamental duty under Article 51-A which reads—“It shall be the duty of every citizen of India who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years”.
Constitution (Ninety-First Amendment) Act, 2003
— The total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Central Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha [Article 75(1A)].
— The total number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a state shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the legislative Assembly of that state. But, the number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in a state shall not be less than 12 [Article 164(1A)].
— The provision of the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection law) pertaining to exemption from disqualification in case of split by one-third members of legislature party has been deleted. It means that the defectors have no more protection on grounds of splits.
Constitution (One Hundred-One Amendment) Act, 2016
— Goods and Services Tax (GST) has commenced with the enactment of the 101st Constitution Amendment Act, 2016.
— Articles 246A, 269A and 279A were added in the constitution. The amendment made changes in the 7 th schedule of the constitution.
Constitution (One Hundred-Second Amendment) Act, 2018
— Constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes.
— Inserted a new Article 342-A which empowers President to notify the list of socially and educationally backward classes of that state/union territory.
Constitution (One Hundred-Third Amendment) Act, 2019
It changed two fundamental rights, Article 15 and 16. It provides for the advancement of the economically weaker sections of society. Ten (10%) of all government jobs and college seats will be reserved for people outside the high-income bracket.