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Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods Notes

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods Notes

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods : Karnataka State Open University is located in Manasagangotri, Mysore. It is recognized as one of the best Open Universities in India imparting Distance Education. The University was established during 1996 and the library started functioning in the same year.

It was inaugurated by Former Hon’ble Governor of Karnataka Sri T.N. Chethurvediji. The Library is housed in spacious, beautiful and attractive building situated in 1750 Sq.mts area. It follows the Dewey Decimal Classification system for organizing documents for its collection and identified as a best knowledge bank.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods Notes

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods : Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods is one of the Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics chapter 1 Introduction sub topic. Here we collected some PDF FormatKarnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods Notes. Download and read well.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods Notes

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods : Economics is a discipline that can help us answer these questions. Economics can actually be defined a few different ways: it’s the study of scarcity, the study of how people use resources, or the study of decision-making. Economics often involves topics like wealth, finance, recessions, and banking, leading to the misconception that economics is all about money and the stock market. Actually, it’s a much broader discipline that helps us understand historical trends, interpret today’s headlines, and make predictions for coming decades.

Download here Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Method Complete Details PDF Format

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods Notes

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods : These two methods of reasoning have a very different “feel” to them when you’re conducting research. Inductive reasoning, by its very nature, is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning. Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses. Even though a particular study may look like it’s purely deductive (e.g., an experiment designed to test the hypothesized effects of some treatment on some outcome), most social research involves both inductive and deductive reasoning processes at some time in the project

a) Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a “top-down” approach. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest. We then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we can test. We narrow down even further when we collect observations to address the hypotheses. This ultimately leads us to be able to test the hypotheses with specific data — a confirmation (or not) of our original theories.

b) Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Informally, we sometimes call this a “bottom up” approach (please note that it’s “bottom up” and not “bottomsup” which is the kind of thing the bartender says to customers when he’s trying to close for the night!). In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories.

 In fact, it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to see that we could assemble the two graphs above into a single circular one that continually cycles from theories down to observations and back up again to theories. Even in the most constrained experiment, the researchers may observe patterns in the data that lead them to develop new theories.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods Notes

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods : Two very distinct and opposing instructional approaches are inductive and deductive. Both approaches can offer certain advantages, but the biggest difference is the role of the teacher. In a deductive classroom, the teacher conducts lessons by introducing and explaining concepts to students, and then expecting students to complete tasks to practice the concepts; this approach is very teacher-centred. Conversely, inductive instruction is a much more student-centred approach and makes use of a strategy known as ‘noticing’. Let’s take a closer look at the differences between inductive and deductive instruction, and find out how noticing can be used in the language classroom to better facilitate student learning.

What is deductive instruction?

A deductive approach to instruction is a more teacher-centered approach. This means that the teacher gives the students a new concept, explains it, and then has the students practice using the concept. For example, when teaching a new grammar concept, the teacher will introduce the concept, explain the rules related to its use, and finally the students will practice using the concept in a variety of different ways.

According to Bob Adamson, “The deductive method is often criticized because: a) it teaches grammar in an isolated way; b ) little attention is paid to meaning; c) practice is often mechanical.” This method can, however, be a viable option in certain situations; for example, when dealing with highly motivated students, teaching a particularly difficult concept, or for preparing students to write exams.

What is inductive instruction?

In contrast with the deductive method, inductive instruction makes use of student “noticing”. Instead of explaining a given concept and following this explanation with examples, the teacher presents students with many examples showing how the concept is used. The intent is for students to “notice”, by way of the examples, how the concept works.

Using the grammar situation from above, the teacher would present the students with a variety of examples for a given concept without giving any preamble about how the concept is used. As students see how the concept is used, it is hoped that they will notice how the concept is to be used and determine the grammar rule. As a conclusion to the activity, the teacher can ask the students to explain the grammar rule as a final check that they understand the concept.

Inductive and Deductive methods of teaching

1. Subjects

For this research an experiment was conducted in a randomly selected primary state school of  Nicosia. For the experiment two groups of students, one of nine (5 males and 4 females) and one of eight (6 males and 2 females) of the fourth grade were used. It has to be noted that the groups used wereintact classes since this was a public school and the researchers were restrained in altering the format of the classes. Therefore, it was necessary to define whether the overall level of the students was equal andthis generated the idea of a pre-test.

2. Material

A questionnaire (Appendix I) for the class teacher was produced with the intention of getting background information. For the purposes of this research a pre-test (Appendix II) was created based onthe coursebook provided by the Ministry of Education and Culture as well as the new grammatical phenomenon to be taught. Separate lesson plans (Appendices III, IV and V) were devised for each

method including the activities that would be used in each lesson. The format of the inductive approach
activities was based on Ellis’ suggestions (1993) and the acti
vities provided by Bolitho & and Thomlinson (2005). A checklist (Appendix VII) was formulated providing the experimenters with additional information for each student. Finally, a self-made post test (Appendix VI) was designed to assess the students’ performance after the two lessons.

3. Procedure

The same non-acquired grammatical feature (simple present) was taught to two different classrooms by two teachers (the experimenters). Prior to the lesson a questionnaire was given to the teacher in order to provide the researchers with information on the methodologies and materials used by the teacher inthe classroom. According to the answers of the teacher none of the methods under examination wereused in the classroom. The teacher followed an implicit approach towards grammar. No explicitinstruction of grammar took place in her lessons but she rather followed a communicative approach tolearning.
 
If any grammatical rules were acquired, this occurred implicitly.At the same time a pre-test was administered to the students so as to determine their languageabilities, to ensure that there was no previous knowledge of the grammatical phenomenon under examination and to be used as a baseline for the results after the instruction of the grammatical phenomenon. The results of the pre-test conducted for this purpose confirmed that the students were notwell acquainted with the grammatical phenomenon under examination (mean score for both classes onthe new structure: 40%). It also showed no significant differences between the level of the two groupsand no need for further statistical procedures were required (T-test). 
The next step of the research was todesign the lesson plans for each method. It should be pointed out that it was decided to use the samematerial for both approaches with the purpose of controlling any factors that could jeopardise thecomparison of each method such as difficulty of the text, differences in the lexicon used etc. Havingsearched for suitable authentic material, the researchers came to realise that they had to devise their ownmaterial since a suitable text containing the specific grammatical phenomenon under scope could not befound.There were two experimenters conducting the research. It was considered wise to use two differentteachers for the two different approaches so as to ensure that any biases in favor or against a specific
method would be eliminated.
The teachers’ goal was to try and convey the desired knowledge to students through the material and lesson plans constructed. By not having the same teacher conducting both experiments an effort was made to exclude the possibility of second time performance on the same grammatical phenomenon as a moderator variable to the teaching method. In other words, if the same teacher taught both lessons, there might have been a change in the teaching attitude due to either  personal preferences, experiences or the feeling of repetition. The teachers then were obliged to perform at their best in the method they were randomly assigned.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Economics Deductive And Inductive Methods Notes

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