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Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing : Much of data management is essentially about extracting useful information from data. To do this, data must go through a data mining process to be able to get meaning out of it. There is a wide range of approaches, tools and techniques to do this, and it is important to start with the most basic understanding of processing data.

Data processing is simply the conversion of raw data to meaningful information through a process. Data is manipulated to produce results that lead to a resolution of a problem or improvement of an existing situation. Similar to a production process, it follows a cycle where inputs (raw data) are fed to a process (computer systems, software, etc.) to produce output (information and insights).

Generally, organizations employ computer systems to carry out a series of operations on the data in order to present, interpret, or obtain information. The process includes activities like data entry, summary, calculation, storage, etc. Useful and informative output is presented in various appropriate forms such as diagrams, reports, graphics, etc.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

Data processing cycle as the term suggests is sequence of steps or operations for processing data i.e. processing raw data to usable form. The processing of data can be done by number of data processing methods.

Data processing cycle can be defined as the process of transforming raw data into useful information. The cycle entails a process of sequential steps, including input processing, output and interpretation, preparation feedback and storage often are include step of the cycle.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

Stages of data processing: 

  1. Input – The raw data after collection needs to be fed in the cycle for processing. This is considered the first step and called input.
  2. Processing – Once the input is provided the raw data is processed by a suitable or selected processing method. This is the most important step as it provides the processed data in form of output which will be used further.
  3. Output -This is the final outcome and the raw data provided in the first stage is now “processed” and the data is useful and provides information and no longer called data.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

Stages of the Data Processing Cycle

1) Collection is the first stage of the cycle, and is very crucial, since the quality of data collected will impact heavily on the output. The collection process needs to ensure that the data gathered are both defined and accurate, so that subsequent decisions based on the findings are valid. This stage provides both the baseline from which to measure, and a target on what to improve.

Some types of data collection include census (data collection about everything in a group or statistical population), sample survey (collection method that includes only part of the total population), and administrative by-product (data collection is a byproduct of an organization’s day-to-day operations).

2) Preparation is the manipulation of data into a form suitable for further analysis and processing. Raw data cannot be processed and must be checked for accuracy. Preparation is about constructing a dataset from one or more data sources to be used for further exploration and processing. Analyzing data that has not been carefully screened for problems can produce highly misleading results that are heavily dependent on the quality of data prepared.

3) Input is the task where verified data is coded or converted into machine readable form so that it can be processed through a computer. Data entry is done through the use of a keyboard, digitizer, scanner, or data entry from an existing source. This time-consuming process requires speed and accuracy. Most data need to follow a formal and strict syntax since a great deal of processing power is required to breakdown the complex data at this stage. Due to the costs, many businesses are resorting to outsource this stage.

4) Processing is when the data is subjected to various means and methods of manipulation, the point where a computer program is being executed, and it contains the program code and its current activity. The process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that simultaneously execute instructions, depending on the operating system. While a computer program is a passive collection of instructions, a process is the actual execution of those instructions. Many software programs are available for processing large volumes of data within very short periods.

5) Output and interpretation is the stage where processed information is now transmitted to the user. Output is presented to users in various report formats like printed report, audio, video, or on monitor. Output need to be interpreted so that it can provide meaningful information that will guide future decisions of the company.

6) Storage is the last stage in the data processing cycle, where data, instruction and information are held for future use. The importance of this cycle is that it allows quick access and retrieval of the processed information, allowing it to be passed on to the next stage directly, when needed. Every computer uses storage to hold system and application software.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

The Data Processing Cycle is a series of steps carried out to extract information from raw data. Although each step must be taken in order, the order is cyclic. The output and storage stage can lead to the repeat of the data collection stage, resulting in another cycle of data processing. The cycle provides a view on how the data travels and transforms from collection to interpretation, and ultimately, used in effective business decisions.

Data processing cycle in most of the cases is a complete cycle in itself but as mentioned above a set of hardware and software might also be employed in some cases with special needs. In such cases a number of things needs to be taken care of to get the sensible and useful output. This depends on the correct sequence, operating skills, understanding of the steps forming the cycle, partial output from one part which will be used as an input for next part. If a person/operator/machine or software fails to perform the steps in sequence than the output will not be useful at all.

A working definition of data processing usually includes all operations performed on data disclosure, management, use and collection of data are four examples of business data processing within a company. The strategic goal of data processing is to convert raw data into meaningful information that improves a current situation or resolves an existing problem. Data processing outputs often take various forms such as reports, diagrams and graphics that make the data easier to understand and analyze.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

Business Data Processing

The data processing cycle is a sequential one that starts with inputs and often ends with interpretation of results — however, many organizations add two stages for feedback and storage:

  1. Input – The first part of the data processing cycle involves collecting data as well as entering it and then preparing it for the next part of the cycle.
  2. Processing – During the second part of the cycle, data is manipulated according to instructions and parameters programmed into the processing application.
  3. Output – The form of outputs includes common variations such as results that are printed or displayed on a computer monitor.
  4. Interpretation – Assessing and analyzing results: What does the data mean?
  5. Feedback – Comparing output with desired results: How can data be processed better?
  6. Storage – Archiving the data (either physically or electronically) for future use.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

Steps in Business Data Processing

In a complete data processing operation, you should pay attention to what is happening in five distinct business data processing steps:

  • Editing – What data do you really need? Extracting and editing relevant data is the critical first step on your way to useful results.
  • Coding – This step is also known as bucketing or netting and aligns the data in a systematic arrangement that can be understood by computer systems.
  • Data Entry – Entering the data into software is a step that can be performed efficiently by data entry professionals.
  • Validation – After a “cleansing” phase, validating the data involves checking (and preferably double-checking) for desired quality levels.
  • Tabulation – Arranging data in a form that facilitates further use and analysis.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

 Data processing is the how raw information is manipulated in order to produce a result. The result may lead a better understanding of a problem or a situation. Data processing is a very essential aspect of businesses all over the world. The success of a business depends on how the volumes of data generated are handled and interpreted. 
Data is manipulated to produce results that lead to a resolution of a problem or improvement of an existing situation. Similar to a production process, it follows a cycle where inputs (raw data) are fed to a process (computer systems, software, etc.) to produce output (information and insights).

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

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Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Stages of Data Processing

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  • Class 12 Accountancy Text book
  • Need for Maintaining of Accounts books by Non Profit Organisation
 

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