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Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

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Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

Meaning of Debentures

Debenture: The word ‘debenture’ has been derived from a Latin word ‘debere’ which means to borrow. Debenture is a written instrument acknowledging a debt under the common seal of the company. It contains a contract for repayment of principal after a specified period or at intervals or at the option of the company and for payment of interest at a fixed rate payable usually either half-yearly or yearly on fixed dates. According to section 2(12) of The Companies Act,1956 ‘Debenture’ includes Debenture Inventory, Bonds and any other securities of a company whether constituting a charge on the assets of the company or not.

Bond: Bond is also an instrument of acknowledgement of debt. Traditionally, the Government issued bonds, but these days, bonds are also being issued by semi-government and non-governmental organisations. The terms ‘debentures’ and ‘Bonds’ are now being used inter-changeably

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

TYPES OF DEBENTURES

A company may issue different kinds of debentures which can be classified as under:

From the Point of view of Security

(a) Secured Debentures: Secured debentures refer to those debentures where a charge is created on the assets of the company for the purpose of payment in case of default. The charge may be fixed or floating. A fixed charge is created on a specific asset whereas a floating charge is on the general assets of the company. The fixed charge is created against those assets which are held by a company for use in operations not meant for sale whereas floating charge involves all assets excluding those assigned to the secured creditors

(b) Unsecured Debentures: Unsecured debentures do not have a specific charge on the assets of the company. However, a floating charge may be created on these debentures by default. Normally, these kinds of debentures are not issued.

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

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From the Point of view of Tenure

(a) Redeemable Debentures: Redeemable debentures are those which are payable on the expiry of the specific period either in lump sum or in Instalments during the life time of the company. Debentures can be redeemed either at par or at premium.

(b) Irredeemable Debentures: Irredeemable debentures are also known as Perpetual Debentures because the company does not give any undertaking for the repayment of money borrowed by issuing such debentures. These debentures are repayable on the winding-up of a company or on the expiry of a long period.

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

From the Point of view of Convertibility

(a) Convertible Debentures: Debentures which are convertible into equity shares or in any other security either at the option of the company or the debentureholders are called convertible debentures. These debentures are either fully convertible or partly convertible.

(b) Non-Convertible Debentures : The debentures which cannot be converted into shares or in any other securities are called nonconvertible debentures. Most debentures issued by companies fall in this category. 2.3.4

From Coupon Rate Point of view

(a) Specific Coupon Rate Debentures: These debentures are issued with a specified rate of interest, which is called the coupon rate. The specified rate may either be fixed or floating. The floating interest rate is usually tagged with the bank rate.

(b) Zero Coupon Rate Debentures: These debentures do not carry a specific rate of interest. In order to compensate the investors, such debentures are issued at substantial discount and the difference between the nominal value and the issue price is treated as the amount of interest related to the duration of the debentures. 2.3.5

From the view Point of Registration

(a) Registered Debentures: Registered debentures are those debentures in respect of which all details including names, addresses and particulars of holding of the debentureholders are entered in a register kept by the company. Such debentures can be transferred only by executing a regular transfer deed.

(b) Bearer Debentures: Bearer debentures are the debentures which can be transferred by way of delivery and the company does not keep any record of the debentureholdeRs Interest on debentures is paid to a person who produces the interest coupon attached to such debentures

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

Issue of Debentures The procedure for the issue of debentures is the same as that for the issue of shares. The intending investors apply for debentures on the basis of the prospectus issued by the company. The company may either ask for the entire amount to be paid on application or by means of instalments on application, on allotment and on various calls. Debentures can be issued at par, at a premium or at a discount. They can also be issued for consideration other than cash or as a collateral security.

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

Over Subscription When the number of debentures applied for is more than the number of debentures offered to the public, the issue is said to be over subscribed. A company, however, cannot allot more debentures than it has invited for subscription. The excess money received on over subscription may, however, be retained for adjustment towards allotment and the respective calls to be made. But the money received from applicants to whom no debentures have been allotted, will be refunded to them.

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

Issue of Debentures for Consideration other than Cash Sometimes a company purchase assets from vendors and instead of making payment in cash issues debentures for consideration thereof. Such issue of debentures is called debentures issued for consideration other than cash. In that case also, the debentures may be issued at par, at a premium or at a discount then entries made in such a situation are similar to those of the shares issued for consideration other than cash,

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

Issue of Debentures as a Collateral Security A collateral security may be defined as a subsidiary or secondary or additional security besides the primary security when a company obtains a loan or overdraft from a bank or any other financial Institution. It may pledge or mortgage some assets as a secured loan against the said loan. But the lending institutions may insist on additional assets as collateral security so that the amount of loan can be realised in full with the help of collateral security in case the amount from the sale of principal security falls short of the loan money. In such situation, the company may issue its own debentures to the lenders in addition to some other assets already pledged. Such an issue of debentures is known as ‘Debentures issued as Collateral Security’. If the company fails to repay the loan along with interest, the lender is free to receive his money from the sale of primary security and if the realisable value of the primary security falls short to cover the entire amount, the lender has the right to invoke the benefit of collateral security whereby debentures may either be presented for redemption or sold in the open market.

Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

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Karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy Debentures

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