Join Your Exam WhatsApp group to get regular news, updates & study materials HOW TO JOIN

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System : A database management system (DBMS) is a computer program (or more typically, a suite of them) designed to manage a database, a large set of structured data, and run operations on the data requested by numerous users. Typical examples of DBMS use include accounting, human resources and customer support systems.

A Database management system is a computerized record-keeping system. It is a repository or a container for collection of computerized data files. The overall purpose of DBMS is to allow he users to define, store, retrieve and update the information contained in the database on demand. Information can be anything that is of significance to an individual or organization.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Databases touch all aspects of our lives. Some of the major areas of application are as follows:

1. Banking

2. Airlines

3. Universities

4. Manufacturing and selling

5. Human resources

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Uses of DBMS:

Data that is well organized and integrated is very useful in decision making.

Thus, we can infer some of the following uses of DBMS:

(i) Effective and efficient management of data

(ii) Query processing and management

(iii) Easy to understand and user friendly

(iv) Security and integrity of data

(v) Better Decision making

(vi) Data sharing and storage

(vii) Better access to accurate data

(viii) Ensures error free information

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Components of DBMS:

A DBMS constitutes of five components that help in the use and management of data in an organization.

These are: 

(i) Data,

(ii) Hardware,

(iii) Software

(iv) User and

(v) Procedure.

(i) Data:

Data is a collection of raw facts that are stored and used inside a database in order to form meaningful information.

(ii) Hardware:

Hardware is a collection of physical components of a computer system. It includes secondary storage devices like disk drives (floppy, CD.), processor, etc.

(iii) Software: 

Software refers to the program that a database system uses in order to run a DBMS application. It is the platform through which data is accessed from the physical location (hardware) where data is stored. For example, a Software named “Database Manager”.

(iv) User:

Users are the people who use the database applications. They can be Database Administrators, Application programmers, Database designers, End users, etc.

(v) Procedure:

A set of instructions that describe the working of a DBMS is called its procedure.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Accounting and DBMS:

DBMS performs many necessary functions to ensure effective running of accounting system in a business.

Some of them are listed below:

(i) Data storage management:

DBMS stores a variety of data and data related forms, reports, etc. related to accounting system.

(ii) Data dictionary management:

The data dictionary is automatically updated in case of any modification, alteration, addition, deletion in the database. This dictionary is used to lookup the required data or components in a journal, ledger, etc.

(iii) Security management:

It is very important to maintain the security and privacy within the database from the outside environment.

(iv) Backup and recovery management:

DBMS provides adequate backup .and recovery procedures in order to ensure the safety of information in accounting software.

(v) Database communication interface:

DBMS uses the internet services to communicate reports, queries and distribute other information throughout the accounting system. The process of computerized accounting system uses databases to store and retrieve data in the form of inter-related data tables. To understand how a database is designed, let us first know about data processing cycle. Data Processing is a technique of collecting, sorting, relating, interpreting and computing data in order to produce meaningful information which can be used for decision making.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

In the context of Accounting, data processing cycle requires the following steps:

(i) Source documents:

The first step is to prepare a document, called voucher, in order to record and express an accounting transaction in a systematic manner.

(ii) Input of data:

The accounting data in the voucher needs to be recorded in the computer using software called data entry form.

(iii) Storage of data:

Storage structures are tables which are designed to store the data in the database.

(iv) Computation of data:

The stored data is presented in the form of final reports.

(v) Output of data:

The output of data is presented in the form of ledger, trial balance, balance sheet etc. in pre designed formats. This is how data is stored in a structured manner in the database.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Reality:

Refers to situations of the real world for which database has to be created.

ER Design:

It is a pictorial representation of the reality.

Relational Data Model:

A data model that represents ER Design and transforms it into data tables. The inter-related data tables ensure the integrity of the stored data by following certain restrictions and rules.

Normalization:

It is a process of refining the database design in order to prevent the redundancy or duplicity of data.

Refinement:

Outcome of the normalization process is termed as refinement.

The final outcome is arrived at after the refinement process is complete.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Concept of Entity and Its Attributes:

Entities are specific objects or things in the mini world that are represented in the database. For example Employee John Smith, the research Department, are independent entities.

The properties that are used to describe an entity are known as Attributes; for example an Employee entity may have a Name, Gender, Date of Birth of his/her attributes.

If book is regarded as an entity then Author’s name, Price, Published by, etc. are its various attributes. A Specific entity will have a value for each of its attributes. Thus an entity has a value for each attribute.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Attributes are of many types:

(i) Single-valued and Multi-valued attributes:

An attribute having a single value such as age of a person, is called single valued attribute and vice versa.

 

(ii) Composite and simple attributes:

Composite attributes can further be sub-divided into smaller attributes with independent meanings, such as name of a person has 3 parts-first name, middle name and last name. A simple attribute cannot be divided further.

(iii) Stored and derived attribute:

An attribute that is stored in such a way that other attributes depend upon it and are thereby derived from it, is known as stored attribute. For example. Date of birth of a person is a stored attribute, while his age is a derived attribute.

(iv) Complex attribute:

When composite or multi-valued attributes are grouped, they form complex attributes.

(v) Null values:

When the value of an attribute is unknown, it is referred to as a null attribute.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Entity Relationship:

An entity by itself and alone does not mean anything. But when it is related to some other entity or entities, a significant relationship can be established. A relationship relates two or more distinct entities with a specific meaning, for example, Employee ‘A’ works on Project ‘X’.

Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD):

A diagram representing entities and relationships among them is known as entity relationship diagram. The major elements used in an ER diagram are entities, attributes, identifiers and relationships that express a reality for which the database is designed.

Let us study the meaning of these symbols:

(i) Entity type:

It symbolizes anything in the real world that has multiple existence.

(ii) Weak entity type:

An entity set that does not have a primary key is referred to as a weak entity set. Here a primary key refers to the unique attribute about an entity.

(iii) Relationship type:

A diamond box is used to represent the relationship between two entities. Relationships can be one-to-one, one-to-many or many-to-many.

(iv) Identifying relationship type:

The relationship type that is used to relate a weak entity type to its owner is shown by double lined diamond shaped box.

(v) Attribute:

Characteristics of interest that describe the various properties of an entity.

(vi) Key attribute:

A key attribute is one for which each entity has a unique value. It is represented by an oval shape with the attribute name underlined.

(vii) Multi valued attribute:

An entity that has multiple values for that attribute is called multi valued attribute.

(viii) Derived attribute:

As discussed earlier, an attribute whose value depends upon the value of the stored attribute. It is represented using a dashed oval shape.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

In a database system, we deal with various types of keys as follows:

1. Candidate Key:

Minimal set of attributes that uniquely identifies each occurrence of an entity type.

2. Primary Key:

Candidate key selected to uniquely identify each occurrence of an entity type.

3. Unique key:

Can accept unique or null values.

4. Composite key:

A key that consists of two or more attributes and removal of even one of them would result in loss of intended information.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Entity and Relationship in an Accounting System:

The entity relationship can be applied in the case of accounting. In accounting, the data from books of original entry say Journal can be posted to their respective ledger accounts and from there to Trial Balance.

Database management systems are systems that manage the full data structure and exercise full control over the data stored in an organization’s database. As compared to the traditional approaches of maintaining data in an organization, the modern system has a number of advantages. Organizational data is always susceptible to losses and therefore a proper system is highly recommended when a lot of data exists. The following are benefits of using database management systems in an organization.

Data Sharing Is Improved In The OrganizationProper database management systems help in gaining better access to data as well as better management of the data. In turn, better access helps the end users share the data fast and effectively across the organization.

Improvement In Data Security

A better framework is provided for enforcement of data privacy and security policies. The risks of data security breaches are minimized and corporate data is used properly.

Effective Data Integration

When data management is improved, it promotes an integrated picture of an organization’s operations. It becomes easy to see how operations in one segment of the organization affects other segments of the organization. Thus, effective integration of data is accomplished through the use of data management solutions.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

Database Management Systems Minimize Data Inconsistency

Data inconsistency occurs when different versions of data exist in different places in an organization. By using a proper management system and data quality management tools, the problem of data inconsistency is minimized.

Better Access To Data

A management system helps in getting quick solutions to database queries, and therefore, data access is faster and more accurate. End users like sales people will have enhanced access to the data, enabling a faster sales cycle and a more sound decision making process.

Increase In Productivity Of The End User

By deploying the best data quality tools and database management systems, the productivity of the end user is increased. With the data management tools, the end users are empowered to make quick and informed decisions that can decide the success and failure of a company in a long run.

Quick Decision Making

When data is better managed and access is improved, quality information is generated and the user is enabled to make faster decisions. A good database managing system helps in providing a framework to facilitate data quality initiatives and in turn, higher quality information helps in making better, faster decisions in an organization.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

for more details On Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System check here Accountancy Syllabus

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System

To download Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System  check here 

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System Books to downloadDownload Link
  • Class 12 Accountancy Text book
  • Need for Maintaining of Accounts books by Non Profit Organisation
 

  • Accounting book 1
 

  • Accounting book 2
  • Accounting book 3

To download Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System check here Accountancy papers

for more details On Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Data Base Management System log onto www.cakart.in

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *