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karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

There are certain organisations which are set up for providing service to its members and the public in general. Such organisations include clubs, charitable institutions, schools, religious organisations, trade unions, welfare societies and societies for the promotion of art and culture. These organisations have service as the main objective and not the profit as is the case of organisations in business. Normally, these organisations do not undertake any business activity, and are managed by trustees who are fully accountable to their members and the society for the utilization of the funds raised for meeting the objectives of the organisation. Hence, they also have to maintain proper accounts and prepare the financial statement which take the form of Receipt and Payment Account; Income and Expenditure Account; and Balance Sheet. at the end of for every accounting period (normally a financial year). This is also a legal requirement and helps them to keep track of their income and expenditure, the nature of which is different from those of the business organisations. In this chapter we shall learn about the accounting aspects relating to not-for-profit organisation.

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit Organisation Not-for -Profit Organisations refer to the organisations that are for used for the welfare of the society and are set up as charitable institutions which function without any profit motive. Their main aim is to provide service to a specific group or the public at large. Normally, they do not manufacture, purchase or sell goods and may not have credit transactions. Hence they need not maintain many books of account (as the trading concerns do) and Trading and Profit and Loss Account. The funds raised by such organisations are credited to capital fund or general fund. The major sources of their income usually are subscriptions from their members donations, grants-in-aid, income from investments, etc. The main objective of keeping records in such organisations is to meet the statutory requirement and help them in exercising control over utilisation of their funds. They also have to prepare the financial statements at the end of each accounting period (usually a financial year) and ascertain their income and expenditure and the financial position, and submit them to the statutory authority called Registrar of Societies.

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

The main characteristics of such organisations are:

1. Such organisations are formed for providing service to a specific group or public at large such as education, health care, recreation, sports and so on without any consideration of caste, creed and colour. Its sole aim is to provide service either free of cost or at nominal cost, and not to earn profit.

2. These are organised as charitable trusts/societies and subscribers to such organisation are called members.

3. Their affairs are usually managed by a managing/executive committee elected by its members.

4. The main sources of income of such organisations are: (i) subscriptions from members, (ii) donations, (iii) legacies, (iv) grant-in-aid, (v) income from investments, etc.

5. The funds raised by such organisations through various sources are credited to capital fund or general fund.

6. The surplus generated in the form of excess of income over expenditure is not distributed amongst the members. It is simply added in the capital fund.

7. The Not-for-Profit Organisations earn their reputation on the basis of their contributions to the welfare of the society rather than on the customers’ or owners’ satisfaction.

8. The accounting information provided by such organisations is meant for the present and potential contributors and to meet the statutory requirement.

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations

As stated earlier, normally such organisations are not engaged in any trading or business activities. The main sources of their income are subscriptions from members, donations, financial assistance from government and income from investments. Most of their transactions are in cash or through the bank. These institutions are required by law to keep proper accounting records and keep proper control over the utilization of their funds. This is why they usually keep a cash book in which all receipts and payments are duly recorded. They also maintain a ledger containing the accounts of all incomes, expenses, assets and liabilities which facilitates the preparation of financial statements at the end of the accounting period. In addition, they are required to maintain a stock register to keep complete record of all fixed assets and the consumables.

They do not maintain any capital account. Instead they maintain capital fund which is also called general fund that goes on accumulating due to surpluses generated, life membership fee, donation, legacies, etc. received from year to year. In fact, a proper system of accounting is desirable to avoid or minimise the chances of misappropriations or embezzlement of the funds contributed by the members and other donors.

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations:

Final Accounts or Financial Statements: The Not-for-Profit Organisations are also required to prepare financial statements at the end of the each accounting period. Although these organisations are non-profit making entities and they are not required to make Trading and Profit & Loss Account but it is necessary to know whether the income during the year was sufficient to meet the expenses or not. Not only that they have to provide the necessary financial information to members, donors, and contributors and also to the Registrar of Societies. For this purpose, they have to prepare their final accounts at the end of the accounting period and the general principles of accounting are fully applicable in their preparation as stated earlier, the final accounts of a ‘not-for-profit organisation’ consist of the following:

(i) Receipt and Payment Account

(ii) Income and Expenditure Account, and

(iii) Balance Sheet.

The Receipt and Payment Account is the summary of cash and bank transactions which helps in the preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and the Balance Sheet. Besides, it is a legal requirement as the Receipts and Payments Account has also to be submitted to the Registrar of Societies along with the Income and Expenditure Account, and the Balance Sheet.

Income and Expenditure Account is akin to Profit and Loss Account. The Not-for-Profit Organisations usually prepare the Income and Expenditure Account and a Balance Sheet with the help of Receipt and Payment Account. However, this does not imply that they do not make a trial balance. In order to check the accuracy of the ledger accounts, they also prepare a trial balance which facilitates the preparation of accurate Receipt and Payment Account as well as the Income and Expenditure Account and the Balance Sheet.

In fact, if an organisation has followed the double entry system they must prepare a trial balance for checking the accuracy of the ledger accounts and it will also facilitate the preparation of Receipt and Payment account. Income and Expenditure Account and the Balance Sheet.

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

Income and Expenditure Account It is the summary of income and expenditure for the accounting year. It is just like a profit and loss account prepared on accrual basis in case of the business organisations. It includes only revenue items and the balance at the end represents surplus or deficit. The Income and Expenditure Account serves the same purpose as the profit and loss account of a business organisation does. All the revenue items relating to the current period are shown in this account, the expenses and losses on the expenditure side and incomes and gains on the income side of the account. It shows the net operating result in the form of surplus (i.e. excess of income over expenditure) or deficit (i.e. excess of expenditure over income), which is transferred to the capital fund shown in the balance sheet.

The Income and Expenditure Account is prepared on accrual basis with the help of Receipts and Payments Account along with additional information regarding outstanding and prepaid expenses and depreciation etc. Hence, many items appearing in the Receipts and Payments need to be adjusted. For example, as shown in Example 1, (Page No. 10) subscription amount of Rs.2, 65,000 received during the year 2014-15 appearing on the receipts side of the Receipt and Payment Account includes receipts for the periods other than the current period. But the subscription amount of Rs. 2,25,000 pertaining to the current year only will be shown as income in Income and Expenditure Account for the year 2014-15.

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

Balance Sheet ‘Not-for-Profit’ Organisations prepare Balance Sheet for ascertaining the financial position of the organisation. The preparation of their Balance Sheet is on the same pattern as that of the business entities. It shows assets and liabilities as at the end of the year. Assets are shown on the right hand side and the liabilities on the left hand side. However, there will be a Capital Fund or General Fund in place of the Capital and the surplus or deficit as per Income and Expenditure Account which is either added to/deducted from the capital fund, as the case may be. It is also a common practice to add some of the capitalised items like legacies, entrance fees and life membership fees directly in the capital fund.

Besides the Capital or General Fund, there may be other funds created for specific purposes or to meet the requirements of the contributors/donors such as building fund, sports fund, etc. Such funds are shown separately in the liabilities side of the balance sheet.

Some times it becomes necessary to prepare Balance Sheet as at the beginning of the year in order to find out the opening balance of the capital/general fund.

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

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karnataka class 12 commerce Accountancy CH9 Accounting For Non-Profit Organisations

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