Join Your Exam WhatsApp group to get regular news, updates & study materials HOW TO JOIN

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund : Capital fund is the excess of NPOs’ assets over its liabilities. In other words, the excess of assets over the liabilities for a profit earning organisation is termed as capital and the same for an NPO is termed as capital fund. Any surplus or deficit ascertained from Income and Expenditure account is added to (deducted from) the capital fund. It is also termed as Accumulated Fund. 

‘Not-for-Profit ‘or ‘Non Profit’ Organizations prepare Balance Sheet for ascertaining the financial position of the organization. The preparation of their Balance Sheet is on the same pattern as that of the business entities. It shows assets and liabilities as at the end of the year. Assets are shown on the right hand side and the liabilities on the left hand side. However, there will be a Capital Fund or General Fund in place of the Capital and the surplus on deficit as per Income and Expenditure Account shall be added to/deducted to this fund. It is also a common practice to add some of the capitalized items like legacies, entrance fees and life membership fees directly in the capital fund.

Besides the Capital or General Fund, there may be other funds created for specific purposes or to meet the requirements of the contributors/donors such as building fund, sports fund, etc. Such funds are shown separately in the liabilities side of the balance sheet. Sometimes it becomes necessary to prepare Balance Sheet as at the beginning of the year in order to find out the opening balance of the capital/general fund.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

Certainly, proper accounting is essential for non-trading institutions. These concerns maintain, generally, a cash book and later they prepare a summary of cash transactions appearing in the cash book. This summary takes the form of an account known as receipts and payments account.

Such concerns also prepare ‘income and expenditure account’ (which is more or less on the lines of profit and loss account) and the Balance Sheet.

The day-to-day accounting consists of maintaining.

(i) Cash book for recording receipts and payments, and

(ii) Ledger for classification of transactions under proper heads.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

Receipts and payments account

It is a summary of cash book for a given period, but the Receipts and Payments account shows the totals of cash transactions under different heads. All the receipts, be cheque or cash are entered on the debit (receipts) side (as in cash book) whereas all the payments (both by cheque or cash) are shown on the credit (payments) side. Following features of the receipts and payments account will help to identify its nature clearly :

1. It is a summary of cash book, like a cash book, receipts are shown on the debit side and payments on the credit side.

2. Cash and bank items are merged in one column. That means receipts in cash as-well-as by , cheque are entered in one column on debit and payments in cash as-well-as by cheque are entered in one column on credit side. Contra entries between cash and bank get eliminated.

3. It is not a part of double entry book-keeping. It is just a summary of cash book which is a , part of double entry system.

4. Just like cash book, it starts with the opening balance of cash and bank and closes with the closing balance of cash and bank.

5. Both revenue and capital receipts and payments are recorded in this account. For example, …An organization that is exclusively set up to carryon with the object of carrying out social service or promo & organization of social activities, is a non-trading enterprise. payment for rent and payment for building and machinery both are recorded on its payments side. Similarly, receipts on account of subscription and machinery are shown on the receipts side.

6. Usually, it shows a debit balance which represents cash in hand and at bank. However, in case of bank overdraft, which is larger than cash in hand, the account will show a credit balance.

7. Receipts and payments account fails to disclose gain or loss made by the concern during the period because (a) it is prepared on actual receipt basis i.e. it records all receipts-irrespective of the period to which it relates (previous year, current year or future), (b) it also ignores the nature of the receipts and payments (whether capital or revenue). I

8. Accounting concept of gain or loss is based on “accrual concept” which by its very nature “receipts and payments account” is not capable of considering. Therefore, fails to disclose gain or loss (earned or suffered by the concern) during the period. For example, this account ignores: 

(i) Decrease or increase i.e. depreciation or appreciation in the value of assets;

(ii) Increase or decrease in the value of stock;

(iii) Provision for expenses incurred but payments not made-outstanding expenses.

(iv) Accounting for payment in advance for the services to be utilized in the next accounting period-prepaid expenses.

It also fails to distinguish between:

(v) Capital and revenue payments-whether expenditure or purchase of an asset, and

(vi) Business charge and appropriation- whether business expenditure or drawings.

Limitations of receipts and payments account

Receipts and payments account suffers from following limitations :

(a) It does not show expenses and incomes on accrual basis.

(b) It does not show whether the club or society is able to meet its day-to-day expenses out of its incomes.

(c) It does not show expenses on account of depreciation of assets.

(d) It does not explain the details about many expenses and incomes. In order to explain such questions, treasurer of the club prepares ‘Income and expenditure account’ and balance sheet.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

Income and expenditure account

This account is prepared by non-trading concerns who want to know if during the financial year their income has been more than their expenditure i.e. profit or vice versa ( i.e. loss). Since the object of these concerns is not primarily to’ earn profit, therefore, they feel shy in giving it the name of profit and loss account. Because the word ‘profit’ is a taboo which any society ‘looks down upon’. Of course, it discloses whether the concerned institution earned or lost.

It is equivalent to and serves the purpose of ‘profit and loss account’.

It is prepared on “accrual basis” (not on receipt basis) meaning thereby that all incomes are to be included which have been earned in the relevant period (whether actually received or not). Similarly, it includes all expenses incurred in the relevant period (whether actually paid or not). This account serves exactly the purpose which ‘profit and loss account’ serves in a trading concern. On the pattern of ‘profit and loss account’ income is shown on the credit side and expenditure on the debit side. It also distinguishes between ‘capital & revenue’ items i.e. it does not take into consideration capital items {both receipts and payments). It follows double entry principles faithfully.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

Balance Sheet

The balance sheet of a non-trading concern is on usual lines. Liabilities on left hand side and assets on right hand side. In trading concerns, excess of assets over liabilities is called ‘capital’. Here, in non-trading concerns, excess of assets over liabilities is called ‘capital fund’. The capital fund is built up out of surplus from income and expenditure account.
Peculiar items of non-trading concern’s
Generally, in the exercises, the instructions are given as to the treatment of special items. Such instructions are based on the rules of the concern. These should be followed while solving the question. In cases, where no specific instructions are given, the following guidelines may be considered:

1. Legacy

It is the amount received by the concern as per the ‘will’ of the ‘donor’. It appears on the receipts side of receipts and payments account. It should not be considered as income but should be treated as capital receipt i.e. credited to capital fund account.

2. Subscriptions

The members of the associations, as per rules, are, generally, required to make annual subscription to enable it to serve the purpose for which it was created. It appears on the receipts side of the receipts and payments account and is, usually, credited to income. Care must be exercised to take credit for only those subscriptions which are relevant.

3. Life membership fees

Generally, the members are required to make the payment in a lump sum only once which enables them to become the members for whole of the life. Life members are not required to pay the annual membership fees. As ‘life membership fees’ is a substitute for ‘annual membership fees’, therefore, it is desirable that life membership fees should be credited to a separate fund and fair proportion be credited to income in subsequent years. In the examination question, if there is no instruction as to what proportion be treated as income then whole of it should be treated as capital.

4. Entrance fees

This is also an item to be found on the receipts side of receipts and payments account. There are arguments that it should be treated as capital receipt because entrance fees is to be paid by every member only once (i.e. when enrolled as memer, hence it is nonrecurring in nature. But another argument is that since members to be enrolled every year and receipt of entrance fees is a regular item, therefore, it should -be credited to income. In the absence of the instructions anyone of the above treatment may be followed but students should append a note justifying their treatment.

5. Sale of newspapers, periodicals, etc.

As the old newspapers, magazines, and periodicals etc. are to be disposed of every year, the receipts on account of such sale should be treated as income, and therefore, to be credited to income and expenditure account.

6. Sale of sports material.

Sale of sports material (used) is also a regular feature of the clubs. Sale proceeds should be treated as income, and therefore, to be credited to income and expenditure account.

7. Honorarium

Persons may be invited to deliver lectures or artists may be invited to give their performance by a club (for its members). Any money, paid to invitees, is termed as honorarium and not salary. Such honorarium represents expenditure and will be debited to income and expenditure account.

8. Special fund

Legacies and donations may be received for specified purposes. As discussed above, these should be credited to special fund all expenses related to such fund are shown by way of deduction from the respective fund and not as expenditure in income and expenditure account.

9. Sale of old asset

It is a non-recurring item. It cannot be taken to income and expenditure account. It leads to reduction in asset. Therefore, it is shown by way of deduction from the concerned asset. It is important to note that it is the “book value” that is to be deducted from asset. Profit or loss in such a case is taken to income and expenditure account. Where the book value of asset is nil, the entire proceeds of sale be treated as income.

10. Specific Donations

These are received for specific purpose. For example: Donation for building; Donation for prizes; Donation for pavilion etc. These are capital receipts and shown on liabilities side. It is worthy to note that such donations should not be treated as income because if they are taken to income and expenditure account, it will increase income. The increased income may be utilized for any other purpose. Thus, the purpose of donation will not be served. Such donations appear on the liability side because they create a long term obligation (liability) on the institution. For example a donor may wish that prizes may be awarded year after year out of the income earned on his donations. Such a donation account can’t be closed within a year by transferring to income and expenditure account.

11. General donations

These donations are not for any specific purpose and being a recurring income they are to be treated as income and are shown on the income side of income and expenditure account.

12. Endowment fund

It represents donation for a specific purpose. Here, the object of the donor is to provide a source of permanent income to the institution. Thus, it is shown in the liability side of balance sheet. Any income earned during the year in such fund is added to it and any expenditure incurred during the year is deducted from it.

13. Proceeds of concerts, lectures and dramas or cultural shows

A concert is a program of musical entertainment. Concerts and lectures of eminent personalities are arranged in aid of charitable Accounts of Non-Trading institutions. Amount in the income side of institutions. Amount collected from such shows by sale of tickets is an income of institution and shown in the income side of income and expenditure account.

14. Govt. grants. These grants are of two types :

(i) Maintenance grants; and

(ii) Development grants.

The maintenance grants are for meeting recurring expenses. These are treated as income and shown in the income side of income and expenditure account. The development grant is for acquiring assets. A development grant is a liability.

15. Accumulated (Capital) Fund

All entities, profit seeking on non-profit seeking require money for carrying out their activities. In business organization such money is called capital while in case of non-profit organizations it is known by various names such as Capital fund or Accumulated fund.

It represents the surplus of assets over outside liabilities of the organization. It is usually made up by special donations; legacies; capitalization of admission fee ; life membership fee etc. It is increased (or decreased) by any surplus (or deficit) on the Income and Expenditure account. Some of the lesser known names given to this item are General fund or Surplus account.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

Steps to prepare income and expenditure account

In the absence of the trial balance, the income and expenditure account will be prepared on the basis of the receipts and payments account. The steps are as follows:

1. Ignore opening and dosing cash and bank balances appearing in receipts and payments account.

2. Eliminate all items of capital receipts and payments.

3. Ascertain income of the relevant year by deducting from the total receipts the income received on account of previous and future years and by adding the income accrued due in the year but not received and income received in the previous year but relating to this year.

4. Ascertain expenditure of the relevant period by deducting expenditure both relating to preceding period and succeeding period from the total payments and by adding the expenditure outstanding at the end and expenditure prepaid in the beginning.

5. Make adjustments, as per additional information, such as depreciation, bad debts etc., if any.

6. The income and expenditure account, when balanced, will disclose surplus (if the credit side is bigger) or deficit (if the debit side is bigger). If surplus i.e. excess on income over expenditure add it to the capital or accumulated fund. However, if deficit i.e., excess of expenditure over income deduct it from the capital or accumulated fund.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

We have so far studied accounting records of firms, which follow the double entry system of book keeping. This gives us an impression that all business units follow this system. However, in practice, all firms do not maintain accounting records strictly as per the double entry system. Many small size enterprises keep incomplete records of their transactions. But, they also have to ascertain the profit or loss for the year and the financial position of the firm as at the end of the year. This chapter deals with the ascertainment of profit or loss and financial position of the firm that have not been maintaining records as per double entry bookkeeping or whose records are otherwise incomplete.

Meaning of Incomplete Records Accounting records, which are not strictly kept according to double entry system are known as incomplete records. Many authors describe it as single entry system. However, single entry system is a misnomer because there is no such system of maintaining accounting records. It is also not a ‘short cut’ method as an alternative to double entry system. It is rather a mechanism of maintaining records whereby some transactions are recorded with proper debits and credits while in case of others, either one sided or no entry is made. Normally, under this system records of cash and personal accounts of debtors and creditors are properly maintained, while the information relating to assets, liabilities, expenses and revenues is partially recorded. Hence, these are usually referred as incomplete records.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

The features of incomplete records are as under : (a) It is an unsystematic method of recording transactions. (b) Generally, records for cash transactions and personal accounts are properly maintained and there is no information regarding revenue and/ or gains, expenses and/or losses, assets and liabilities. (c) Personal transactions of owners may also be recorded in the cash book. (d) Different organisations maintain records according to their convenience and needs, and their accounts are not comparable due to lack of uniformity. (e) To ascertain profit or loss or for obtaining any other information, necessary figures can be collected only from the original vouchers such as sales invoice or purchase invoice, etc. Thus, dependence on original vouchers is inevitable. (f) The profit or loss for the year cannot be ascertained under this system with high degree of accuracy as only an estimate of the profit earned or loss incurred can be made. The balance sheet also may not reflect the complete and true position of assets and liabilities. 11.2 Reasons of Incompleteness and its Limitations It is observed, that many businessmen keep incomplete records because of the following reasons : (a) This system can be adopted by people who do not have the proper knowledge of accounting principles; (b) It is an inexpensive mode of maintaining records. Cost involved is low as specialised accountants are not appointed by the organisations; (c) Time consumed in maintaining records is less as only a few books are maintained; (d) It is a convenient mode of maintaining records as the owner may record only important transactions according to the need of the business. However, the mechanism of incomplete records suffers from a number of limitations. This is due to the basic nature of this mechanism. Broadly speaking, unless a systematic approach to maintenance of records is followed, reliable financial statements cannot be prepared.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

The limitations of incomplete records are as follows :

(a) As double entry system is not followed, a trial balance cannot be prepared and accuracy of accounts cannot be ensured. (b) Correct ascertainment and evaluation of financial result of business operations can not be made. (c) Analysis of profitability, liquidity and solvency of the business cannot be done. This may cause a problem in raising funds from outsiders and planning future business activities. (d) The owners face great difficulty in filing an insurance claim with an insurance company in case of loss of inventory by fire or theft. (e) It becomes difficult to convince the income tax authorities about the reliability of the computed income.

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

for more details On Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund syllabus check here Accountancy Syllabus

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund

To download Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund check here 

Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund Books to downloadDownload Link
  • Non Profit Organisations book
  • Need for Maintaining of Accounts books by Non Profit Organisation
 

  • Accounting book 1
 

  • Accounting book 2
  • Accounting book 3
  • Need for Maintaining of Accounts notes by Non Profit Organisation
  • Need for Maintaining of Accounts guide by Non Profit Organisation
  • Need for Maintaining of Accounts guide by Non Profit Organisation 1
  • Need for Maintaining of Accounts guide by Non Profit Organisation 2

To download Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund check here Accountancy papers

for more details On Karnataka Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Ascertainment of Opening Capital Fund log onto www.cakart.in

 

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *