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Impact of inflation and indexation for Financial Planning Mcom sem 1 Delhi University


Impact of inflation and indexation for Financial Planning Mcom sem 1 Delhi University

Impact of inflation and indexation for Financial Planning MCOM sem 1 Delhi University

Financial planning is the task of determining how a business will afford to achieve its strategic goals and objectives. Usually, a company creates a Financial Plan immediately after the vision and objectives have been set. The Financial Plan describes each of the activities, resources, equipment and materials that are needed to achieve these objectives, as well as the time frames involved.

Impact of inflation and indexation for Financial Planning Mcom sem 1 Delhi University : The Financial Planning activity involves the following tasks;

  • Assess the business environment
  • Confirm the business vision and objectives
  • Identify the types of resources needed to achieve these objectives
  • Quantify the amount of resource (labor, equipment, materials)
  • Calculate the total cost of each type of resource
  • Summarize the costs to create a budget
  • Identify any risks and issues with the budget set

Performing Financial Planning is critical to the success of any organization. It provides the Business Plan with rigor, by confirming that the objectives set are achievable from a financial point of view. It also helps the CEO to set financial targets for the organization, and reward staff for meeting objectives within the budget set.

The role of financial planning includes three categories:

  1. Strategic role of financial management
  2. Objectives of financial management
  3. The planning cycle

When drafting a financial plan, the company should establish the planning horizon, which is the time period of the plan, whether it be on a short-term (usually 12 months) or long-term (2–5 years) basis. Also, the individual projects and investment proposals of each operational unit within the company should be totaled and treated as one large project. This process is called aggregation.

Impact of inflation and indexation for Financial Planning Mcom sem 1 Delhi University

Indexation

Indexation is a technique to adjust income payments by means of a price index, in order to maintain the purchasing power of the public after inflation, while deindexation is the unwinding of indexation.

Overview

From a macroeconomics standpoint there are four main categories of indexation: wage indexation, financial instruments rate indexation, tax rate indexation, and exchange rate indexation. The first three are indexed to inflation. The last one is typically indexed to a foreign currency mainly the US dollar. Any of these different types of indexation can be reversed (deindexation).

Applying a cost-of-living escalation COLA clause to a stream of periodic payments protects the real value of those payments and effectively transfers the risk of inflation from the payee to the payor, who must pay more each year to reflect the increases in prices. Thus, inflation indexation is often applied to pension payments, rents and other situations which are not subject to regular re-pricing in the market.

COLA is not CPI, which is an aggregate indicator. Using CPI as a COLA salary adjustment for taxable income fails to recognize that increases are generally taxed at the highest marginal tax rate whereas an individual’s rising costs are paid with after-tax dollars – dollars commensurate with an individual’s average after-tax level. Indexing tax brackets does not address this fundamental issue but it does effectively eliminate “bracket-creep”.

Indexation has been very important in high-inflation environments, and was known as monetary correction “correção monetária” in Brazil from 1964 to 1994. Some countries have cut back significantly in the use of indexation and cost-of-living escalation clauses, first by applying only partial protection for price increases and eventually eliminating such protection altogether when inflation is brought down to single digits.

Protecting one of the parties from the risk of inflation means that the price risk must be shifted to another party. For example, if state pensions are adjusted for inflation, the price risk is passed from the pensioners to the taxpayers.

Impact of inflation and indexation for Financial Planning Mcom sem 1 Delhi University

Delhi University Mcom Financial Planning detailed Syllabus is available here.

Contents:

Unit I: Introduction to Financial Planning: Globally accepted six steps financial planning process; General principles of cash flow planning, budgeting, legal aspects of financial planning. Overview of risk management: investments, insurance, retirement solutions, tax and estate planning.

Unit II: Investment Environment: Types of investment options available to an individual investor – bonds, equity shares, mutual funds, fixed deposits, PPF, financial derivatives, commodity derivatives, gold and bullion, ETFs, REITs, real estate etc. Objectives and rewards of investing. Investment constraints (tax considerations, unique needs etc.). Impact of inflation and indexation. Sources of financial information. Understanding mutual funds (Schemes, NAV calculation, load structure, Systematic Investment Plans, Systematic withdrawal plan etc.)

Unit III: Return-Risk Assessment: Risk aversion and risk profiling. Concept, types and calculation of returns. Assessment of risks in various financial instruments. Power of compounding and Time value of money. Rupee cost averaging. Concept of Portfolio and Diversification. Basics of Portfolio risk and return (two assets case). Tactical and strategic asset allocation.

Unit IV: Personal Financial Planning: Personal financial planning process. Setting personal financial goals. Life cycle approach to financial planning. Components of financial plan; developing financial plan; Using time value concept to estimate savings. Evaluation of tax saving instruments. Objectives of will and creating a valid will; living will and power of attorney. Planning for life insurance and health insurance. Primary clauses in Insurance agreement. Main contents of healthcare insurance.

Unit V: Credit Planning and Retirement Planning: Assessment of credit – types, advantages, disadvantages. Consumer and housing finance planning. EMI calculations – methods and implications. Reverse mortgage. Education loan. Credit card management; credit limits, overdraft protection, grace period. Credit Bureaus – individual credit history and ranking, identity theft and protection against identity thefts. Retirement planning and pension plans. Impact of taxes and inflation.

Unit VI: Investor Protection: Role of SEBI. Investor grievances and redressal system in India.

Impact of inflation and indexation for Financial Planning Mcom sem 1 Delhi University

Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy. A chief measure of price inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index, usually the consumer price index, over time.The opposite of inflation is deflation.

Inflation affects economies in various positive and negative ways. The negative effects of inflation include an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money, uncertainty over future inflation which may discourage investment and savings, and if inflation were rapid enough, shortages of goods as consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include reducing the real burden of public and private debt, keeping nominal interest rates above zero so that central banks can adjust interest rates to stabilize the economy, and reducing unemployment due to nominal wage rigidity.

Economists generally believe that high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth.

Today, most economists favor a low and steady rate of inflation. Low (as opposed to zero or negative) inflation reduces the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more quickly in a downturn, and reduces the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy. The task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is usually given to monetary authorities. Generally, these monetary authorities are the central banks that control monetary policy through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, and through the setting of banking reserve requirements.

Impact of inflation and indexation for Financial Planning Mcom sem 1 Delhi University

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