How to Calculate TDS on Salary
Every Employer who is paying salary to his employee which is more then maximum amount exempt from tax has to deduct TDS on such Salaries Under section 192 of the Income tax Act,1961. While deducting TDS employers are faced with following questions :-
1. How to Calculate TDS and What Rate TDS needs to be deducted?
2. How to Compute Average rate of TDS deduction on Salary?
3. TDS on Perquisites
4. What if Employee is receiving Salary from more then one employer or received from more then one employer
5. Relief When Salary Paid in Arrear or Advance:
6. Information regarding Income under any other head:
7. Computation of income under the head “ Income from house property”:
8. Conditions for Claim of Deduction of Interest on Borrowed Capital for Computation of Income From House Property Section 24(b):
9. Salary Paid in Foreign Currency
SECTION 192 OF THE INCOME-TAX ACT, 1961: BROAD SCHEME OF TAX DEDUCTION AT SOURCE FROM “SALARIES”:
1. Method of Tax Calculation:
Every person who is responsible for paying any income chargeable under the head “Salaries” shall deduct income-tax on the estimated income of the assessee under the head “Salaries” for the financial year 2013-14. The income-tax is required to be calculated on the basis of the rates given in the post titled – Income Tax rates for FY 2013-14 / AY 2014-15 , subject to the provisions related to requirement to furnish PAN as per sec 206AA of the Act, and shall be deducted at the time of each payment. No tax, however, will be required to be deducted at source in any case unless the estimated salary income including the value of perquisites, for the financial year exceeds Rs. 2,00,000/- or Rs.2,50,000/- or Rs. 5,00,000/-, as the case may be, depending upon the age of the employee.(Some typical examples of computation of tax are given at Annexure-I).
2. Payment of Tax on Perquisites by Employer:
An option has been given to the employer to pay the tax on non-monetary perquisites given to an employee. The employer may, at its option, make payment of the tax on such perquisites himself without making any TDS from the salary of the employee. However, the employer will have to pay the tax at the time when such tax was otherwise deductible i.e. at the time of payment of income chargeable under the head “salaries” to the employee.
2.1 Computation of Average Income Tax:
For the purpose of making the payment of tax mentioned in para 3.2 above, tax is to be determined at the average of income tax computed on the basis of rate in force for the financial year, on the income chargeable under the head ”salaries”, including the value of perquisites for which tax has been paid by the employer himself.
The income chargeable under the head “salaries” of an employee below sixty years of age for the year inclusive of all perquisites is Rs.4,50,000/-, out of which, Rs.50,000/- is on account of non-monetary perquisites and the employer opts to pay the tax on such perquisites as per the provisions discussed in para 3.2 above.
| Income Chargeable under the head “Salaries”|
inclusive of all perquisites
|Tax on Total Salary (including Cess)||Rs. 25,750/-|
|Average Rate of Tax [(25,750/4,50,000) X 100]||5.72%?2Ftd>|
|Tax payable on Rs.50,000/= (5.72% of 50,000)||Rs. 2,861/-|
|Amount required to be deposited each month||Rs. 240 (Rs. 238.4) =2881/12)|
The tax so paid by the employer shall be deemed to be TDS made from the salary of the employee.
3. Salary From More Than One Employer:
Section 192(2) deals with situations where an individual is working under more than one employer or has changed from one employer to another. It provides for deduction of tax at source by such employer (as the tax payer may choose) from the aggregate salary of the employee, who is or has been in receipt of salary from more than one employer. The employee is now required to furnish to the present/chosen employer details of the income under the head “Salaries” due or received from the former/other employer and also tax deducted at source therefrom, in writing and duly verified by him and by the former/other employer. The present/chosen employer will be required to deduct tax at source on the aggregate amount of salary (including salary received from the former or other employer).
4. Relief When Salary Paid in Arrear or Advance:
4.1 Under section 192(2A) where the assessee, being a Government servant or an employee in a company, co-operative society, local authority, university, institution, association or body is entitled to the relief under Section 89(1) he may furnish to the person responsible for making the payment referred to in Para (1), such particulars in Form No. 10E duly verified by him, and thereupon the person responsible, as aforesaid, shall compute the relief on the basis of such particulars and take the same into account in making the deduction under Para(1) above.
Here “University means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act, and includes an institution declared under section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, to be a University for the purposes of that Act.
4.2 With effect from 1/04/2010 (AY 2010-11), no such relief shall be granted in respect of any amount received or receivable by an assessee on his voluntary retirement or termination of his service, in accordance with any scheme or schemes of voluntary retirement or in the case of a public sector company referred to in section 10(10C)(i) (read with Rule 2BA), a scheme of voluntary separation, if an exemption in respect of any amount received or receivable on such voluntary retirement or termination of his service or voluntary separation has been claimed by the assessee under section 10(10C) in respect of such, or any other, assessment year.
5. Information regarding Income under any other head:
(i) Section 192(2B) enables a taxpayer to furnish particulars of income under any head other than “Salaries” ( not being a loss under any such head other than the loss under the head “ Income from house property”) received by the taxpayer for the same financial year and of any tax deducted at source thereon. The particulars may now be furnished in a simple statement, which is properly signed and verified by the taxpayer in the manner as prescribed under Rule 26B(2) of the Rules and shall be annexed to the simple statement. The form of verification is reproduced as under:
I, …………………. (name of the assessee), do declare that what is stated above is true to the best of my information and belief.
It is reiterated that the DDO can take into account any loss only under the head “Income from house property”. Loss under any other head cannot be considered by the DDO for calculating the amount of tax to be deducted.
6. Computation of income under the head “ Income from house property”:
While taking into account the loss from House Property, the DDO shall ensure that the employee files the declaration referred to above and encloses therewith a computation of such loss from house property. Following details shall be obtained and kept by the employer in respect of loss claimed under the head “ Income from house property” separately for each house property:
a) Gross annual rent/value
b) Municipal Taxes paid, if any
c) Deduction claimed for interest paid, if any
d) Other deductions claimed e) Address of the property
f)Amount of loan, if any; and
g) Name and address of the lender (loan provider)
6.1 Conditions for Claim of Deduction of Interest on Borrowed Capital for Computation of Income From House Property Section 24(b):
Section 24(b) of the Act allows deduction from income from houses property on interest on borrowed capital as under:-
(i) the deduction is allowed only in case of house property which is owned and is in the occupation of the employee for his own residence.However, if it is actually not occupied by the employee in view of his place of the employment being at other place, his residence in that other place should not be in a building belonging to him.
(ii) The quantum of deduction allowed as per table below:
|Purpose of borrowing capital|
Date of borrowing
| Repair or renewal or reconstruction of the|
|Any time||Rs. 30,000/-|
|Acquisition or construction of the house||Before 01.04.1999||Rs. 30,000/-|
|Acquisition or construction of the house||On or after 01.04.1999||Rs. 1,50,000/-|
In case of Serial No. 3 above
(a) The acquisition or constructing of the house should be completed within3 years from the end of the FY in which the capital was borrowed. Hence it is necessary for the DDO to have the completion certificate of the house property against which deduction is claimed either from the builder or through self-declaration from the employee.
(b) Further any prior period interest for the FYs upto the FY in which the property was acquired and constructed shall be deducted in equal installments for the FY in question and subsequent four FYs.
(c) The employee has to furnish before the DDO a certificate from the person to whom any interest is payable on the borrowed capital specifying the amount of interest payable. In case a new loan is taken to repay the earlier loan, then the certificate should also show the details of Principal and Interest of the loan so repaid.
7. Adjustment for Excess or Shortfall of Deduction:
The provisions of Section 192(3) allow the deductor to make adjustments for any excess or shortfall in the deduction of tax already made during the financial year, in subsequent deductions for that employee within that financial year itself.
8. Salary Paid in Foreign Currency:
For the purposes of deduction of tax on salary payable in foreign currency, the value in rupees of such salary shall be calculated at the “Telegraphic transfer buying rate” of such currency as on the date on which tax is required to be deducted at source ( see Rule 26).
How to Calculate TDS on Salary
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