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Deriving Conclusion from Passages notes-CSEET

Deriving Conclusion from Passages notes-CSEET

Deriving Conclusion from Passages:

ICSI CSEET: The Council of the ICSI has released a notice regarding CSEET on the day of the inauguration of ICSI Golden Jubilee Celebrations on 4th Oct 2017.

The Gazette Notification on the Company Secretaries (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 has been published on 3rd February 2020 in the Official Gazette of India and the same shall be applicable from the said date of publication.

Now ICSI Published a notice regarding CSEET Test which going to start from 2020 May.

We are now going to discuss the details of CSEET Paper-2 Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning – Deriving Conclusion from Passages notes.

Deriving Conclusion from Passages

Deriving Conclusion from Passages

Deriving Conclusion from Passages:

In this section of logical deduction, the question consists of a brief passage (usually a report containing certain data regarding some social or economic problem), Followed by certain inferences based on it. The candidate is required to analyse the content (or data) of the passage and grasp the desirable facts from it.

Then, he has to consider each of the given inferences in the context of the given passage, decide upon its degree of truth or falsity and then choose the best alternative provided accordingly.

Directions : Read the following passage and examine each inference given below it in the context of this passage.

Mark your answer as:

(a)   if the inference is ‘definitely true’

(b)   if the inference is ‘probably true’;

(c)   if the ‘data provided is inadequate’;

(d)   if the inference is ‘probably false’; and

(e)   if the inference is ‘definitely false’.

Example 1 . The World Health Organization has called for improved surveillance to combat dengue and says the outbreak can be controlled in two weeks if all necessary steps are taken to stop the mosquitoes from breeding and break the transmission cycle.

Dengue is already the most widespread mosquito-borne disease among humans. In the past 15 years, outbreaks in South and South-East Asia have been rapidly rising mostly due to falling environmental and public health standards during urbanization. WHO, reports that severe forms of the disease such as hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and shock syndrome (DSS) are putting more 2.5 million people at risk worldwide each year. Importantly, 95 % of the DHF cases are among children less than 15 years. Therefore, the disease has major impacts on public health and future generations.

  1. If rate of urbanization in South Asia is controlled, outbreaks of all disease are reduced.
  2. World Health Organization has not collected data of outbreak of dengue in the past.
  3. There was no outbreak of dengue in the European countries in the recent past.
  4. Over the last decade, South Asian countries have not successfully stepped up mechanism to combat dengue.
  5. DSS type dengue seems mostly to be affecting the adults.

Solution

  1. It is mentioned in the passage that ‘outbreaks in South and South East Asia have been rapidly rising mostly due to falling environmental and public health standards during urbanization’. Thus, the fact in the question is quite probable. So, the conclusion is probably true.
  2. The passage talks of outbreak of dengue during the past 15 years. This contradicts give European countries. Hence, the data are inadequate
  3. The passage mentions the outbreak of dengue during in Asian countries only and not the European countries. Hence the data are inadequate
  4. It is mentioned in the passage that cases of outbreak of dengue are rapidly rising in South Asian countries since the last 15 years. This means that adequate steps to combat dengue have not been taken. Hence, the conclusion is definitely true.
  5. Nothing about the effect of DSS type dengue is mentioned in the passage. Hence the data are inadequate.

Deriving Conclusion from Passages

Sample Questions

Directions : Read the following passage and examine each inference given below it in the context of this passage.

Mark your answer as:

(a)   if the inference is ‘definitely true’

(b)   if the inference is ‘probably true’;

(c)   if the ‘data provided is inadequate’;

(d)   if the inference is ‘probably false’; and

(e)   if the inference is ‘definitely false’.

Procurement of wheat is in full swing in the north-western states of India. By June end, public agencies are likely to end up with food grain stocks of about 40 to 42 million tonnes, the highest ever witnessed in the history of this country. This stock should be more than sufficient to ensure that the country’s “food security” is not endangered even if India faces two consecutive droughts.

But strangely enough, while the granaries overflow, there is still widespread hunger in the country even without a drought. The estimates of poverty are being debated, but broadly one-third of India seems to remain underfed. And this coexistent of grain surpluses with large scale hunger should make any serious policy-maker think and examine the existing policy mix with a view to ensure faster economic growth and reduction in poverty.

Q.1 The policy-makers in India are unaware of prevalent hunger.

Answer B

Explanation

The statement ‘………. while the granaries overflow, there is still widespread hunger in the country ….’ in the passage, indicates a lackening on the part of the policy-makers. Hence, it is quite probable that they are unaware of the prevalent hunger. Thus, the given inference is probably true.

Q.2 India always maintains foodgrain stocks to withstand two consecutive droughts.

Answer D

Explanation

It is mentioned in the passage that the current foodgrain stock is the highest e witnessed in the history of this country’. Thus, it is quite probable that such stocks are not always maintained. Hence, the given inference is probably false.

Q.3 The distribution of foodgrains to the masses has remained a problem area for India.

Answer A

Explanation

The phrase ‘coexistence of grain surpluses with large scale hunger’ in the passage clearly implies the given fact. Hence, the inference is definitely true.

Q.4 India’s foodgrains stock has been satisfactory over the past few years.

Answer C

Explanation

Nothing about the previous years’ foodgrain stock of the country has been mentioned in the passage. Only the current situation has been discussed. Hence, the data are inadequate.

Q.5 More than 30 percent of the population in India do not even get two times meals per day.

Answer A

Explanation

The given fact is clear from the sentence, “…. but broadly one-third of India seems to remain underfed”. Hence, the inference is definitely true.

Q.6 The policy of India needs to be revamped to reduce the extent of poverty in the country.

Answer A

Explanation

The last sentence of the passage clearly implies the given fact. Hence, the given inference is definitely true.

Q.7 India, at present, is one of the countries in the world to have sufficient food for its people.

Answer A

Explanation

The statement “This stock should be more than sufficient to ensure that country’s food security is not endangered” clearly supports the given inference. Hence, the given inference is definitely true.

Direction for [Question No: 8 To 10]: Economic liberalization and globalization have put pressures on Indian industry, particularly on the service sector, to offer quality products and services at low costs and with high speed. Organizations have to compete with unequal partners from abroad. It is well recognized that developing countries like India are already behind other countries technologically, in many areas, although some of them, particularly India, boast of huge scientific and technical manpower. In addition to this, if an entrepreneur or industrialist has to spend a lot of his time, money and energy in dealing with unpredictable services and in negotiating with the local bureaucracy, it can have a significant dampening effect on business.

Q.8 Official formalities are less cumbersome in almost all the countries except India.

  1. If you think the inference is ‘definitely true’.
  2. If you think the inference is ‘probably true’ though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.
  3. If the data given is inadequate i.e., from the fact given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
  4. If you think the inference is probably false though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.

Answer C

Explanation

The last sentence of the passage hints at cumbersome official formalities in India, but nothing can be deduced about its comparison to other countries.

Q.9 India at present is to some extent at par with the developed countries in terms of technological development.

  1. If you think the inference is ‘definitely true’.
  2. If you think the inference is ‘probably true’ though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.
  3. If the data given is inadequate i.e., from the fact given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
  4. If you think the inference is probably false though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.

Answer D

Explanation

It is mentioned in the passage that though India boasts of huge technical manpower, yet it lags behind other countries in technology. Thus, it is quite probable that India is in no way at par with the developed countries in terms of technological development.

Q.10 Foreign companies are more equipped than domestic companies to provide quality service in good time.

  1. If you think the inference is ‘definitely true’.
  2. If you think the inference is ‘probably true’ though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.
  3. If the data given is inadequate i.e., from the fact given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
  4. If you think the inference is probably false though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.

Answer A

Explanation

The fact clearly follows from the first two sentences of the passage.

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