Comprehension Passages – CA Foundation, CPT notes, PDF
This article is about Comprehension Passages- BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTING for CA foundation CPT students. we also provide PDF file at the end.
What we will study in this chapter:
Past Year Questions and Answers
2003 – May  (c) Rahul, the General Manager in a large pharmaceutical company, is a profound proponent of ‘Management by Objectives’ (MBO). He has always viewed himself a very democratic manager, with a strong belief in employee participation. He does this by involving employees in decision making and goal setting, etc. Though he leaves them alone to achieve their goals but is ever willing to help them, if needed. He has been very successful in his endeavours in this respect. Recently he hired Puneet, a young MBA from a top Business School of India. Puneet was good at academics as well as at extra-curricular activities. After orientation programme, Puneet was posted in the Production Department. Rahul motivated Puneet to work independently, maintaining his faith in the philosophy of participative management. He discussed the project assigned to him, set a production target to be achieved within a stipulated period. Puneet, however, failed to complete the project in time. Revised target after consultation with Puneet was set. Unfortunately, results were not encouraging. Rahul confronted Puneet and chided him for his non-performance. He was warned to perform or face termination. Puneet was stunned for a while but finally gathered courage and said, “Sir, though I like you, but I feel diffident working with you. I sometimes do not know what to do next. It takes me longer. If I could benefit from-your experience by having you tell me each day what steps to take next, I am sure things would yvork well.” He further told Rahul that in his previous job also, his superiors used to help him like that. On hearing this, Rahul became speechless and wondered what to do with Puneet.
Read the above case and answer the following question:
(i) What would you suggest to improve Puneet’s work performance?
(ii) Do you think Rahul’s decision to confront Puneet to express his
displeasure at his dismal performance was the right way to handle situation? (4 marks)
(iii) Do you think Rahul should abandon his belief in MBO. (4 marks)
(iv) Do you think Rahul and Puneet can still work together or should
Puneet’s services be terminated? (4 marks)
(i) Puneet’s performance can be improved only be motivating him and training him to stand on high on his own feet. He should be confident of his own capabilities. He should also be encouraged not to feel shy of asking for any help from his superior if needed.
Efforts are also required on the part of Rahul. He should be patient in his approach and should not look for over high changes in Puneet.
(ii) Yes, Rahul’s decision to confront Puneet to express his displeasure at» his dismal performance was the right way to handle the situation. Rahul did not show his displeasure when Puneet failed to complete the project assigned to him for the first time. Rather he revised tho productioh target in consultation with Puneet. However, Puneet was not able to achieve even the revised target.
(iii) Rahul, should not abandon MBO. Here Rahul is willing to help his subordinates and set the targets that are measurable and realistic. Rahul has been very successful and MBO is working well in his organisation. Rahul is able to elicit results from his subordinates. Puneet had been an exception but after knowing the problem Rahul should ultimately succeed.
(iv) Rahul and Puneet can still work together and Puneet’s service should not be terminated.
Rahul has a Strong belief in the virtues of MBO and participative management and is an enthusiastic follower of it. To a good extent he has been successful in implementing MBO in his organisation. Though Puneet has failed twice in his efforts to achieve the production target set for him he can still be motivated to perform to his potential. At present he lacks will power and confidence to work independently- something he has perhaps carried from his previous employment. Rahul should surely be able to help Puneet in overcoming the shortcomings. Termination is to be used only as a last resort where the person is found lacking basic abilities and willingness to work.
2003 – Nov  B is a draftsman for a large industrial equipment manufacturer. He has been with the company for more than ten years and is well respected for his abilities. In a recent conversation with one of his friends, B revealed the following thoughts about his work.
I really shouldn’t complain about my job, I guess. The money is good. The working conditions are excellent. I have good friends who work with me and that’s important. Although retirement is a long way off, I’m putting aside funds to help me live comfortably than, f’m also setting aside money to put oui children through college when the time comes.
My problem is this: I just don’t see anything different in the future. I have already reached the top of the pay .scale for draftsman. Except for cost of living adjustments, my income will never be much greater than it is now. More important, I’ve reached the top level for promotions that a draftsman can achieve. To get in to a higher-level design or engineering job, the company requires you to be a college graduate. Since I don’t have a college degree, I have no real hope of advancing. Even if I could go back to college to get a degree, it would take years for me to get one. I must support my family; so I can spare neither the time nor the money that would be necessary to get a degree.
‘ As I view the alternative available, I just don’t see many within the company itself. Perhaps what I should do is get involved in something of the job that would be stimulating. One of the boy’s clubs in town needs someone to teach the kids how to do carpentry and wood work, and I’m pretty good at those things; so I may volunteer to work in the program.
Read the above case and answer the following questions:
(i) Which of B’s needs are being fulfilled by his organisation?
(ii) Which of B’s needs are not being met by his employer? Why is this
particularly discouraging to B? (5 marks)
(iii) What steps B is planning to take to solve his problem? (4 marks)
(iv) What steps could B’s employer take to change the attitudes of B and
improve his inspiration to perform? (5 marks)
(i) Monetary needs of B are being fulfilled. They add to the money income level of individuals.
(ii) B’s non-monetary needs are not being fulfilled. B is discouraged because he views no career advancement opportunities, meaningful and interesting jobs and supportive leadership and supervision.
(iii) B has probably two options. According to one, he can have a higher degree but he cannot effort to leave the job since he has to support his family. Alternatively, he is planning to teach the kids how to do carpentry ar.d wood work in one of the boys club in town.
(iv) The employer of B can provide him the opportunity to study by helping him take some correspondence degree course. Further, he may be involved in other creative field in the company, which may be beneficial to both.
2004 – May  Read the following case study and answer the questions given at the end:
Mr. Iqbal, the training manager of PKJ Tyres Ltd., during his fifteen years with the company had the experience of training and developing numerous managers, only to see many of them leave the firm after getting their advanced degrees. The company had a liberal policy of educational reimbursement to the tune of financing 75% of tuition costs and books. A proof of its popularity was that most of the junior and middle level managers had availed this facility to advance their qualifications.
Mr. Mahatme, a graduate sales executive, who had joined the company just three years ago had also availed the aforesaid facility for pursuing a course in Business Management and had recently obtained his master’s degree in business management and was quite thrilled about it.
It was natural for Mr. Iqbal to have congratulated Mr. Mahatme on his achievement when he came to see him, but was strongly taken aback1 when he expressed his intention to leave the company in favour of a competitor firm because he did not see any future for himself in PKJ Tyres Ltd.2 Mr. Iqbal was furious as this had happened so many times in the past. He immediately rushed to see the Vice President (Marketing) to seek support for reviewing and discontinuing the policy of educational reimbursement with immediate effect.
(i) What could be the possible reasons behind employees acquiring
higher education at the cost of the organization and quitting the organization? (8 marks)
(ii) Should the policy of educational reimbursement be abandoned? Give
reasons. (4 marks)
(iii) What measures do you suggest for overcoming the problem of high
employees turnover? (6 marks)
(i) All organisations suffer from the turnover of employees. Some employees after gaining experience and sharpening their skills aspire for speedier success and seek better opportunities. If they find that the options are limited within the organisation, they start applying for the jobs outside the organization and try for better work, position and pay.
To retain an employee any organisation’ must possess a combination of healthy working conditions, growth opportunities, commensurate pay package and appropriate incentives. The work assigned and the position in the hierarchy should also be in accordance with the experience, skills and the educational qualifications of an individual.
PKJ Tyres Ltd. might be expecting that the employees will use their additional degrees and skills acquired for the furtherance of organisational objectives. Employees mainly emphasised on their own • growth and quit the organisation in favour of better jobs. Clearly, there is non-congruence of organisational and personal goals.
The organisation has liberal training and development incentives available to its employees. It appears that it has not linked the additional qualifications, which are acquired by employees subsequent to their joining with appropriate promotion and growth opportunities. Any organization must recognize the newer skills and qualifications acquired by its employees. This is more important for organization which itself is facilitating additional qualifications. Such an scenario within the organisation has prompted the employees to look elsewhere for their career growth.
(if) Abandoning the policy of reimbursement of educational expenses is a harsh treatment of the problem which should be avoided.
Discontinuance of any incentive will only send waves of dissatisfaction across the organisation. Discontentment will be more’-in case of employees who are looking forward for availing the reimbursement in the future. Such a measure can also be counter productive as it can further trigger employee turnover, at least in short run.
The intentions behind the policy are in right earnest and the company should continue with the facility. At the same time, there is need to suitably modify organisational policies and ensure that it is able to share and mutually gain the benefit derived out of higher educational degrees and resultant increase in capabilities of employees.
There is need to consider suitable alternatives to solve the problem.
(iii) It is natural that once an employee is able to attain better educational qualifications, he will look forward to advancement in his organisational position also. A graduate sales executive, after acquiring a Business Management degree will aspire to get a managerial job and satisfy his higher level needs. To overcome the problem of high turnover, the organisation can consider several alternatives. Some of the possible alternatives are:
(a) Getting of additional degree can be suitably linked with the career planning of the employees. At least, they should be given a fair chance whenever opportunities exist in the organisation.
(b) A minimum length of service can be prerequisite before an employee can take the loan.
(c) An employee can be asked to sign a bond to serve the company for a certain minimum duration after availing the facility.
(d) As an alternative to reimbursement, the company can consider, full or partial interest free loan. The employees should pay the loan back over a long period of time in instalments of small amount. Employees have to return the loan in case they decide to leave the organisation. There may also be provision of waiving-off a portion of loan if an employee continues to be in service for a specific period. This will be equivalent to reimbursement provided they stay.
2004 – Nov  Read the following case and answer the questions given at the end:
At noon, one day, Mr. Janardhan, a Cashier in a local suburban bank, was suddenly confronted by a man, with a pistol in hand, who demanded all the currency in the Cashier’s cabin. Mr. Janardhan complied and put all his money in a bag. The robber left swiftly through the front door, jumped in a car, and drove away. Mr. Janardhan immediately sounded the alarm, ran to his own car, and followed the robber. Driving at high speed, he overtook the robber, forced him to stop and chased him on foot until overtaking him. There ensued a struggle in which Janardhan was shot in the leg. but he Successfully detained the robber until the local police arrived.
The local press gave Mr. Janardhan wide coverage for his heroism. He also received recognition from various individuals and groups for his bravery. The bank officials, however, had mixed reactions about the incident. The bank had a long- standing policy that a Cashier, when confronted with an attempt at robbery, was to comply completely with the demands, so as not to endanger employees and customers. Each Cashier had been further instructed to give alarm only when it was safe to do so and then await action by police and insurance agents. Any bank employee who failed to follow this procedure would be immediately discharged.
The bank manager felt that Mr. Janardhan should be discharged since he had violated the policy. But the personnel officer argued that his bravery, devotion to duty, and loyalty to the bank did reduce the intensity of the wrong done. The public relations officer reminded the bank’s Chairman that the public might view Mr. Janardhan’s discharge from office with misgivings since he, after all, had saved their deposits. The training officer said that a dangerous precedent would be established, if any, exception to the policy is permitted.
(i) What is the problem as you see it? Elaborate. (6 marks)
(ii) What do you think about bank manager’s views in this matter?
(iii) Do you think that the personnel officer was right? (3 marks)
(iv) What is your recommendation in this situation? (6 marks)
(i) The cashier has put himself in great risk by confronting the robber. The problem is whether the bank should look at the incident in a rule bound bureaucratic manner or should the bank consider other issues.
If the bank looks in a bureaucratic manner then the bank is totally ignoring the behavioural aspects. It may be curbing the initiative required for bringing novelty in operations and triggering organizational changes. In bureaucracy written rules and work procedures serve as guides to action by managers and non-mangers. Norms of conduct are established and everyone is expected to follow them in a mechanized manner.
On the other hand, if the bank deviates from the established norms and procedures then these start losing their sanctity. Individuals in the organisation may not always adhere to them. While deviating from established policies, they may take the plea that the deviations were done because of the needs of the circumstances.
(ii) In my opinion the bank manager was acting purely on the basis of the written policy of the bank. He did not take into consideration the unusual circumstances of this case. As a matter of fact Mr. Janardhan’s case should be treated as a special one.
The bank rrianager’s advice that Janardhan should be discharged is not desired. Conceptually, policies lay down the broad scope, critical constraints and boundaries within which managers are expected to take decisions and action initiatives. Good policies should leave sufficient discretion and freedom to managers within the set boundaries. In the given case, the bank manager should keep in mind that employees have to work towards accomplishment of overall organisational goals. They should be result oriented and not procedure driven.
(iii) Yes, In fact, Mr. Janardhan has taken due care to act in a manner which takes care of the basic intention of the policy. He did not adventure within the premises to ensure the security of customers and other stall of the bank. He allowed robber to leave as per the policy, sounded the alarm and then only further acted outside the bank to control the robber. In a way, he has acted within the boundaries set by
policy. The personnel officer was right because Mr. Janardhan had acted in good faith of protecting the bank employees and the bank deposits. He took the human element in view and thought that this particular case should not be merely covered by policies existing in the bank.
(iv) Considering the different opinions, the bank manager and training officer feel that Mr. Janardhan should be punished, the personnel officer and public relations officer feel that he should not be punished. In this particular incident, Mr. Janardhan has indeed in the first place observed the rules. He took the initiative to chase the robber only after the robber left the premises.
Mr. Janardhan had acted in good faith of protecting the bank employees and the bank deposits. These types of incidents cannot be covered merely by policies. The bank should also consider that under such situations, the credibility of the bank is also at stake. Some persons may get vary of opening or maintaining an account with the bank where robbery has taken place. This may happen at least for a bridf period.
Therefore, it is recommended that Mr. Janardhan should be rewarded rather than punished. However, employees may be clearly told to avoid confrontation With such elements to ensure any unhappy situations in future.
2005 – May  Global Enterprises
Global Enterprises was established 10 years ago at Lonapur, when it was a small village near Rampur. The firm produced a number of decorative furnitures. In the beginning there was only one man management—Mr. Chandan Das. But as demand and profits grew some executives mostly distant relatives of Mr. Chandan Das were employed. These people took the line of least resistance and merely kept on the right side of Mr. Das. Meanwhile Lonapur became more inhabited surrounded by few other workshops and residential housing. Mr. Das, however, was reluctant to move the factory in another large plot which he owned in an industrial area on the ground that he was sentimentally attached to Lonapur.
Since Mr. Das had appointed Mr. Kaveri, BE, MBA as Chief Manager so Mr. Das used to visit factory rarely. There was protest for the working style of Mr. Kaveri and some people were suspended. His argument was week working environment, bad machineries, improper utilisation of labours were the main cause.
He tried to convince the officers that the increasing control of the employees union needed to be dealt with greater firmness through the use of disciplinary procedures. The officers and superiors shared his views but were reluctant to confront the union. Another point which he shared was relatively stagnant market which was attributed by him to lack of any organised marketing effort. All these aspects resulted in the declining profitability and difficulties in paying up suppliers on time.
One day the Chief Executive called a meeting of all officers and superiors and addressed them as following :
“I am here for merely a year but find that I have made little progress because my ideas are not accepted. I am, therefore, forming an Inter-departmental Committee consisting of Mr. A from production, Mr. B from Finance, Mr. C from Marketing and my executive assistant. Let the committee find out the facts, the weaknesses and what has to be done to improve matters. Let modern management principles be the sole criterion of working and not sentimental attitudes. I shall give a full brief to the committee which should be carefully studied and which should become the starting point for committee’s work.”
Read the above case carefully and answer the following questions :
(i) What are the main problems of Global Enterprises ? (6 marks)
(ii) What according to you are the probable causes of these problems?
(iii) What recommendation you would like to make to improve the working
of Global Enterprise ? – (6 marks)
(i) Global Enterprises facing several problems. Some of them may be given as follows:
(a) There appears to be bad financial position including financial crunch. This is evident from declining profitability and inability to pay suppliers in time.
(b) There also is also lack of objectivity in decision-making. Sentiments have been given priority over other factors while taking decisions of strategic importance such as relocating factory.
(c) Further, relatives have been appointed as executives. These relatives act as yes man to Mr. Chandan Das. Perhaps they lack requisite knowledge and dynamism required for such positions.
(d) There is also concentration of authority. Such a structure has its own peril. In spite of such concentration, there is also insubordination as Mr. Kaveri states that his ideas are not accepted.
(e) There are also labour problems as need is felt for disciplinary action.
(ii) Probable causes may be identified as follows:
(a) Lack of professionalism in managing the company. Important decisions are taken on family considerations or on the basis of sentiments.
(b) Lack of commitment on the part relatives who have been appointed in the organisation. They are merely trying to please Mr. Das.
(c) Lack of systems approach as management seems to be constrained in various problems in watertight compartments.
(d) Mr. Kaveri’s style and handling of change process. His style is resented by unions.
(iii) Recommendations which may improve the wo.rking of global
enterprises are given below:
(a) Already a team in the form of Inter-departmental Committee has been formed. Also a need is being felt that modern management principles should be used. Such measures should be further reinforced.
(b) There is also need to impart training to managers especially to appointed relatives. Training may be given to impart and develop the skills of the mass handling, negotiation with unions and maintenance of discipline. Replacing some of relatives with professionals may be considered if training does not give the desired results.
(c) Positive methods of discipline should be encouraged instead of hostile approach.
(d) Mr. Chandan Das should again take active interest in the company. In initial years, he was able to manage improvement in demand of products and also growth in profits. However, he should take lessons from his past experiences and act in a professional manner and not be guided by sentiments and family considerations.
2005 – Nov  Read the following case and answer the questions given at the end: r
Ram Bansal was the Administrator of Ambawadi Community Hospital. The Finance Controller, Ramesh Ahuja, reported to him and directed the financial affairs of the hospital. Ahuja’s general attitude was that of a tight- fisted guardian of finance. He was rigid in attitude, not wanting to approve any action that was a departure from routine or at variance from policy. Bansal was the type who desired to take action, regardless of the restrictions of past practice or policy. The differing attitudes of two men had led to conflicts in the past, and on two occasions Bansal had warned, “If you can’t follow my orders, Ramesh, I am going to fire you”. Ahuja held his ground and usually won his arguments, contending that his approach was proper accounting practice and, therefore, not subject to challenge by Bansal.
One afternoon Bansal approached Ahuja and commented, “Ramesh, here’s merit wage increase that I just put through for Rita Agarwal. She’s the best floor supervisor we have, and she deserves an increment. She threatened to leave unless we gave her a raise. I promised this on her next pay cheque, so as to be sure to put it through at once.”
Ahuja looked at the merit increase form and commented, “Mr. Bansal, you know I can’t put this through, ft is contrary to our policy. She is already getting the top rate allowed for her category.”
Bansal -: “That doesn’t make any difference. Put it through. I’m the administrator of this hospital, and when I say ‘do it’, then put it through.”
Ahuja : “I can’t do it. It’s against our policy.”
Bansal : “I’m the boss here, and I say do it”.
Ahuja : “I’m not going to violate the policy”.
Bansal pointed his finger at Ahuja and talked so loudly that it attracted the attention of others in the office: “Who’s the boss here, Mr. Ahuja?”
Ahuja : “You are”.
Bansal : “Then put this raise through”.
Ahuja : “No.”
A shouting match developed between them that diverted the attention of the whole office. Finally, Bansal said, “Ramesh, I have had enough. You are fired.”
Ahuja : “You can’t fire me for that.”
Bansal : “I just did it. You are through”.
Bansal did not retract his action. Ahuja^/vas removed from the payroll and he left the hospital in the afternoon.
(i) Discuss the leadership style used by Ram Bansal. How effective is his
style? (6 marks)
(ii) What changes would you advise in such a style? (4 marks)
(iii) To what extent were Ramesh Ahuja’s needs being considered?
(iv) What kind of organisational climate was being created? (4 marks)
(i) The leadership style used by Ram Bansal’s may be considered as autocratic and authoritarian. An autocratic leader retains the authority and decision-making powers with himself. There is little participation by his subordinates in the decision-making process,. Subordinates are expected to follow the instructions and orders. Clearly, Ram Bansal reflected similar behaviour and did not appreciate the issues raised by Ahuja. Instead of ironing out the differences he chose to deal it with a iron hand.
Ram Bansal was preoccupied with the authority conferred on. him by his position and he wanted that his subordinates including Ahuja should follow instructions unquestioningly. This is again a unique feature of authoritarian style.
Autocratic style may be suitable in cases wherein subordinates have tendency to shirk responsibility and avoid work and also in cases wherein they lack general acumen to take decisions and accomplish the job. However, autocratic style is often considered detrimental to conducive organisational climate.
In general, it leads to. lack of confidence and insecurity in the subordinates, and stifles creativity and innovative abilities in the subordinates. The autocratic style also stifles subordinate’s development and organisational effectiveness. Ram Bansal’s style is not effective from the point of view of the conducive organisational environment that an administrator should provide. In fact, it is Ram Bansal’s style that has led to a major conflict situation within the organisation between him and Ramesh Ahuja, Finance Controller. This has also attracted the attention of other persons in the organisation that may lead to a sense of fear among others and also frustration due to lack of opportunity and fear on the part of subordinates to express a view different from that of their, superior.
(ii) The facts of the case reveal that Ramesh Ahuja was always cognizant of hospital’s policies and procedures. He had the ability to argue his viewpoint where he differs from his superior. He was willing to state the reasons for his differences. In this situation, Ram Bansal should have adopted a participative style of leadership with trust and confidence in Ramesh Ahuja so that communication with him is open and team-work is built up.
To be an effective leader, Ram Bansal should have a greater measure of confidence and trust in his subordinates, help them in the development of methods to achieve organisational objectives, and also encourage participation in the real sense.
There was need to discuss the importance of flexibility in the policies and the principles behind them. May be in exceptional cases deviating from policies is desirable, but there is nothing wrong in discussing the same and critically appraising them for repercussions before any action is taken.
(iii) The facts of the case reflect that Ramesh Ahuja is willing to raise difference in opinion to his superior. He seeks the freedom to point out deviations in organisational policies. His objective is to interact with his superior, without fear, bearing in mind organisational goals.
The lack of communication that underlies the leadership style of the Ram Bansal and the sense of insecurity that stems from the leadership style adopted by him have an adverse impact on the feeling of pride that Ramesh Ahuja has. Pride is a powerful and valuable motivator and when this is stifled, the subordinate feels frustrated.
Ramesh Ahuja expects a measure of involvement in decisionmaking. Involvement satisfies one’s ego and self-esteem. But in the present situation, Ramesh Ahuja is denied the opportunity for involvement in decision-making.
(iv) Ram Bansal’s style will lead to a climate characterised by a sense of fear and low morale. The subordinates will be scared to voice out their opinion or reservations on critical issues. They may, in general avoid to participate in the decision-making process. Subordinates will become ‘yes men’ and refuse to confidently accept authority delegated to them.
In this environment, group effectiveness will be lost. In the final analysis, this adverse climate will not provide a conducive atmosphere for Ram Bansal to be an effective leader who can otherwise function
comfortably and achieve results competently.
2008 – May  Read the following case and answer the questions given at the end:
A Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) listed well-established company, engaged in manufacturing of metal containers and packaging items, had diversified its operations in early 1990s by investing a large amount in a bearings factory. In the late 1990s the company was found suffering from a high cost structure, mounting losses, shortage of liquid funds and large scale exodus of technicians and managers. For a turnaround the management proposed for reduction in workforce, wage cuts and freezing of LTC facility and other perks. But the proposal was not acceptable to the labour unions. Ultimately the company decided to reopen the packaging units, hitherto closed. But their revival depended upon cost reduction through reduction in the excess workforce. A Multinational Company was interested in taking over the sick unit, but was not allowed to do so under the present laws.
(i) Was the decision to diversify into bearings correct ? (6 marks)
(ii) What apparently went wrong ? (6 marks)
(iii) What would be your advice to the company ? (6 marks)
(i) In the given case it is given that a BSE listed well established company, engaged in manufacturing of metal containers and packaging items, has diversified its operation in early 1990’s and by late 90’s was found suffering from huge loss. This loss poses the question that was the decision to diversify into bearings correct ? The answer to the above question will be ‘yes– Yes, the decision to diversify into bearings was absolutely correct. This is because, diversification is a second business strategy capable of giving high returns to the company. Diversification also reduces the risk of company by reducing dependence on just one product. If a company has diversified its product range there is an added advantage that if one industry is in recession the other product may be in growth phase of business cycle. Thus the decision of the company was correct. It also seems from the given case study the company has reaped some profits too. Taking into consideration all the above points one can state that the company had the capacity market and reputation to justify the decision.
(ii) It is given in the case that after diversification the company is suffering from high cost structure, mounting losses, shortage of liquid fund and large scale exodus of technicians and managers. Thus the question arises what apparently went wrong ? There may be many a reason as to why the strategy went wrong.
The first reason may be that the diversification was done at a very high cost.
Secondly, the company is over staffed. This is evident more so because the company is proposing for reduction in work force.
Moreover it seems the company is bit by mismanagement and is not utilising its resources effectively.
The company also seems to have failed at human relations front. There seems a lack of motivational force resulting in low productivity.
(iii) To revive, the company needs to tackle the situation with a positive look and a rational approach. First of all it has to take its union into confidence. By introducing worker’s participation in management, the company can seek advice from the workers. The decisions taken with the support of the workers would be easier to implement. Secondly the company should adopt cost reduction and cost control methods through new improved working methods. It can also go in for voluntary retirement scheme to reduce the excess workforce. It is also given that the company is suffering from shortage of liquid fund. Thus for revival the company needs additional fund. This fund can be arranged from financial institutions.
2006 – Nov  Read the following case and answer the questions given at the end :
A-One Engineering Limited is a multinational light engineering company. It has manufacturing facilities in India at Surat and Indore. The company adopted budgetary system with emphasis on production and expense budget. The budget targets are set on the basis of analysis of production facilities and production operations. While Surat unit was working properly, Indore unit was not able to meet the target for the last three years.
To irhprove the functioning of Indore unit Mr. Rohit Chaudhary, who has been an Assistant Manager at the Surat unit for nearly 8 years, was transferred to Indore unit as a Plant Manager. He was assigned the special task to improve Indore unit. Mr. Cuaudhary is an engineer by profession and after passing engineering he did MBA from a reputed institution. He had joined the Company as an engineer-trainee some 12 years back. Right from his early days at Surat unit, he has been very ambitious and autocratic. He believed in getting the things done through effective exercise of authority and control. Among his colleagues and subordinates he has an image of a strict administrator. Soon after joining the Indore unit, he made preliminary study of the working environment in the plant and issued instructions to all departmental heads to reduce cost by 5 percent. Initially there was some resistance by the Assistant Plant managers and supervisors. Within a short span of 45 days, production went up by 10 percent. After a fortnight he instructed all the departments to increase production by 15 percent and
instructed the supervisors strictly to adhere to the target. Again his instructions were resisted at initial level. He also introduced minor changes in the existing reporting system. He himself watched the operators very closely. He suspended two supervisors for not meeting the target. Subsequently two supervisors left at their own, while one supervisor proceeded on long leave. With ail his efforts, the unit was very much on the right track and within six months the new budgeted figure exceeded by 12 percent.
After setting the plant right, he was called back at Surat as Plant Manager where vacancy arose due to retirement. However, shortly after Mr. Chaudhary left the Indore unit, things began to revert back and the productivity fell sharply, much below the earlier levels.
(i) Explain the type of organisational climate created by Mr. Chaudhary
at the Indore unit. (6 marks)
(ii) What were th e probable reasons for drop in productivity at the Indore
unit after Mr. Chaudhary left it ? (6 marks)
(iii) Should Mr. Chaudhary improve his leadership skills ? Why and how?
(i) It is given that Mr. Chaudhary was ambitious and autocratic. Such a person believes in determining performance goals and the means of achieving them unilaterally. In the given case also Mr. Chaudhary has issued orders and instructions to his subordinates without involving them, he exercised his authority to coerce the supervisors and assistant managers to adhere to his instructions to reduce costs and increase production. He also supervised them very closely.
Autocratic actions on the part of a leader are justified in cases where employees lack self-initiative and generally shirk work or are not capable of being involved in decision making process. However, if the environment does not require autocracy then such actions of a leader used on a sustained basis creates a climate characterised by stress, pressure and fear. Autocratic instructions issued by Mr. Chaudhary and close supervision must have brought in a sense of fear among the
employees. His action to suspend two supervisors must have further added to the scare that was created. Supervisors leaving the organisation or proceeding on long leave indicates that the organisational climate is one wherein employees are not able to closely associate their personal goals with organisational goals. His image of strict administrator also made the organisation more impersonal.
Organisation climate by definition is enduring. The inherent climate of the organisation, prevailing prior to the entry of Mr. Chaudhary, wherein members of the organisation were not delivering the results once again surfaced as soon as was shifted back to original location. However, this time the situation further deteriorated.
(ii) Mr. Chaudhary used pressure to improve the production in the unit. As soon as the pressure was withdrawn the productivity also went down. Evidently the employees working in the organisation lack interest and are not able to involve themselves with the objectives of the organisation. So long as the fear was used the production improved. It is also possible that the supervisor and managers lack necessary skills to create an conducive environment wherein everybody works as a team towards accomplishment of the organisational goals.
Although Mr. Chaudhary was able to raise the production for some time, he failed to improve the organisational working where individuals become self-interested and deliver results. He was not effective in his approach. He did not bother to analyse the root cause of low productivity and failed to find a permanent remedy to the illness. He being an autocrat believed in exercising authority strictly and monitoring completely to force all employees to meet budgeted target. It was a short-term solution for a long term problem.
(iii) Adopting autocratic style by the managers in some situations is required. There are also individuals in organisations who deliver results only under strict supervision. These are the people who do not respond to positive actions taken by their superiors. However, generalising that only style that should be adopted by a manager should be autocratic is wrong. Perhaps Mr. Chaudhary is a believer in Theory X. Similarly he also falls at the one end of leadership continuum comprising of leaders who keep complete authority with
them. Definitely, he needs to improve his leadership skills.
Organisational climate is affected by leadership style, communication, decision making, motivation, etc. Mr. Chaudhary, as plant manager of Indore Unit, should have made efforts to find a long- lasting solution to the problem of low productivity instead of going in for fire-fighting measures. He was concerned only for production. He should have changed his leadership style from authoritative to consultative or participative style. It would have led to sense of involvement and commitment among them. He should have developed two-way communication to get feedback of where things were going wrong. Had he done all that others would have continued his philosophy and efforts to maintain and improve the productivity levels, as Mr. Chaudhary envisioned.
There are a variety of programmes focused on development of leadership and behavioral skills. In the given case at least Mr. Chaudhary should undergo leadership training. These programmes should be designed to expose him to several leadership situations and teach him how to tackle them. The situations can be created that are partly simulated and partly real. Expert trainers can be assigned this job. These trainers create the situations wherein the managers undergoing leadership training are provided opportunities to diagnose problems, think of ways and means of tackling them which partly involve testing of various styles of leadership against realities. Leadership training to Mr. Chaudhary should be designed to give insights and experiences on appropriate attitudesand behaviour which he has to adopt in tackling diverse situations, on how to gain initiative and command over a situation how to inspire and motivate people, that measures are necessary to inject discipline, cohesiveness and team work ethic in the group, and so on.
2007 – May  What is Bloom’s Taxonomy.
It is a classifications of the different objectives and skills that education set for their students. It includes six levels of learning which are as follows:
Bloom’s is hierarchal, meaning that learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skill at lower levels.
2007 – Nov  How can vocabulary enhancement be done?
- Read extensively
- Use dictionary for meaning of new words
- Read interesting material
- Learn group of words that come together
- Dedication and perseverance
2018 – May  (a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below:
A life of action and danger moderates the dread of death. It not onlv gives us fortitude to bear pain, but teaches us at every step the precarious tenure on which we hold our present being. Sedentary and studious men are the most apprehensive on this score. Dr. Johnson was an instance in point. A few years seemed to him soon over, compared with those sweeping contemplations on time and infinity with which he had been used to pose himself. In the still life of a man of letters there was no obvious reason for a change. He might sit in an arm chair and pour out cups of tea to all eternity would it had been possible for him to do so. The most rational cure after all for the inordinate fear of death is to set a just value on life. If we mere wish to continue on the scene to indulge our head-strong humour and tormenting passions, we had better be gone at once; and if we only cherish a fondness for existence according to the good we desire from it, the pang we feel at parting it will not be very server.
(i) What type of people are afraid of death and Why? (1 mark)
(ii) How can we get rid of fear of death? (1 mark)
(iii) What idea do you form about Dr. Johnson from this passage?
(iv) Write Summary of the Passage. (2 marks)
(i) Sedentary men are afraid of death because they do not live their life with action and danger moderates the dread of death.
(ii) By lives a action full life we can get rid of fear of death, because it not only gives us fortitude to bear pain, but teaches us at every step the precarious tenure.
(iii) In,the life of a man of letters there is no obvious reason for a change. He might sit in an arm chair and Pour out cups of tea.
(iv) Tbe summary of the passage is that the inordinate fear of death is to set a just value of life. If we mere wish to continue on the scene to indulge our head strong humour and tormenting passions, we had better be gone at once.
2018 – Nov  (a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below:
“Your room is so ugly that no one can enter your room except yourself, son. Please take care of yourself at least.” Harish’s mother was simply shouting at Harish. It was a beautiful Sunday morning and Harish was in no mood to get up from bed even it was already 9.00 A.M. His mother had completed cleaning the whole house except Harish’s Room. Harish got up and finished his daily routine. Still, he was only at the receiving end. “All your friends have finished morning walk, breakfast and completed their weekly homework given in the college. Just clean your room and take the whole garbage and throw outside.” Harish was surprised. What is mom speaking about ? Yesterday only his mom was teaching him about “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” and today asking him to throw the garbage outside! “What’s this Mom ? You advised me so much and today asking to throw garbage outside ?” Harish had two options, either to follow his mother’s last night advice or to follow her present order. He decided to follow the first and raised objection. His Mom said. “It was just a book son, I was teaching from that only.” Harish still
objected and threw the garbage inside a dustbin, located around 200 metres away from his house.
Is it only a matter of reading only ? Is really cleanliness not necessary ? Is it a duty of the politicians and Government servants ? Harish asked himself all the questions to himself and decided to do what he thought to be proper. If all of us with a little effort try it in our daily life, slowly, but surely we can clean our environment. Only we are responsible for all this non-sense. Therefore we have to act. We have to avoid the use of polythene bags to save our environment; we have to give up our habit of throwing garbage and used plastic bags and bottles here and there. Otherwise day will come, when we and our future generation will be struggling to find a clean road to walk. Think seriously and act accordingly.
(i) What was the subject matter of the book, which Harish’s mother was
teaching him last night ? (1 mark)
(ii) Who has to act properly to ensure a clean environment ? (1 mark)
(iii) Who will suffer if we do not ensure clean environment ? (1 mark)
(iv) Write a summary of the above paragraph. (2 marks)
(i) The book that Harish’s mother was reading was “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.”
(ii) We all should work to ensure the cleanliness of the environment.
(iii) We all and the next generation will have to suffer if we do not keep the environment clean.
(iv) This story reflects the reality of the people toward ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.’
On one side, where Harish’s mother tells him to clean his room on the other side, she tells him to throw garbage on the road. People want cleanliness but do not want to do it themselves. They think this is just the work of the politicians and Government servants. But they forget that India is our home too. It is the responsibility of each and every Indian citizen to make our country a Swachh country. Cleanliness is most important of all because sanity is the centre of health and health is the centre of wealth. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is not only a matter of reading or saying but it is an awareness campaign for cleanliness,
which was launched on October 2, 2014 through India. We must respect (he Swachh Bharat Abhiyan like Harish and take part in it. By this we and our next generation will get clean and beautiful India in the future.
2019 – June  (a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below:
Coral reefs are one of the most fragile, biologically complex, and diverse marine ecosystems on Earth. This ecosystem is one of the fascinating paradoxes of the biosphere. Found along the sea coasts they are formed in various shapes and sizes. They constitute as one of the beautiful creation^ of nature. Symbiotic cells of algae known as zooxanthellae carry out photosynthesis using the metabolic wastes of the coral thereby producing food for themselves, for their corals, hosts, and even for other members of the reef community. This symbiotic process allows organisms in the reef community to use sparse nutrient resources efficiently..
Unfortunately for coral reefs, however, a variety of human activities are causing worldwide degradation of shallow marine habitats by adding nutrients to the water. Agriculture, slash-and-burn land clearing, sewage disposal and manufacturing that create waste by-products all increase nutrient loads in these waters. Typical symptoms of reef decline are destabilized herbivore populations and an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals. Declines in reef communities are consistent with observations that nutrient input is increasing in direct proportion to growing human populations,’ thereby threatening reef communities sensitive to subtle changes in nutrient input to their waters.
(i) What are the indicators of reef decay? (1 mark)
(ii) How does Algae carry out the process of (1 mark) photosynthesis?
(iii) How is man responsible for destruction of Natural Reef? (1 mark)
(iv) Write a Summary of the above Passage. (2 marks)
(i) The indicators of reef decay are:
- The destabilized herbivore populations
- An increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals.
(ii) Symbiotic cells of algae known as zooxanthellac carry out photosynthesis using the metabolic wastes of the coral thereby producing food for themselves, for their corals, hosts, and even for other members of the reef community.
(iii) Following activities by human/man are responsible for destruction of Natural Reef:
By adding nutrients to the water like:
(b) Slash and burn land clearing
(c) Sewage disposal
(d) Manufacturing activities that create waste by-products.
(iv) Summary of the passage: Coral Reefs, one of the beautiful creations of nature are found along the sea coast and are a diverse marine ecosystem on Earth.
A variety of human activities are causing worldwide decline of coral reefs by increasing nutrient loads in there waters, to which such reef communities are sensitive and thus, threatened due to these subtle changers in tt.air waters.
Q.1: Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: Biofuels and the Environment:
Leading investors have joined the growing chorus of concern about governments and companies rushing into producing biofuels as a solution for global warming, saying that many involved in the sector could be jeopardising future profits if they do not consider the long term impact of what they are doing carefully.
It is essential to build sustainability criteria into the supply chain of any green fuel project in order to ensure that there is no advance effect on the surrounding environment and social structures. The report produced by the investors expresses concern that many companies may not be fully aware of the potential Pitfalls in the biofuel sector.
Production of corn and soya beans has increased dramatically in the last years as an eco-friendly alternative to fossil fuels but environmental and human rights campaigners are worried that this will lead to destruction of rain forests. Food prices could also go up as there is increased competition for crops as both foodstuffs and sources of fuel. Last week, the UN warned that biofuels could have dangerous side effects and said that steps need to be taken to make sure that land converted to grow biofuels does not damage the environment or cause civil unrest. There is already great concern about palm oil, which is used in many foods in addition to being an important biofuels, as rain forests are being cleared in some countries and people driven from their homes to create palm oil plantations.
An analyst and author of the investor’s report says that biofuels are not a cure for climate change but they can play their part as long as governments and companies manage the social and environmental impacts thoroughly. There should also be greater measure taken to increase efficiency and to reduce demand.
- …………… are worried about the boom in biofuels.
(a) Few people
(b) Many people
(c) Only these leading investors.
(b) Many People
- Biofuel producers …………… know about the possible problems.
(a) do not
(b) might not
(c) must not.
(b) might not
- Environmentalist believe that increased production of corn and soya.
(a) has destroyed rain forests
(b) may lead to the destruction of rain forests.
(c) Will lead to the destruction of rain forests.
(c) will lead to the destruction of rain forests
- Biofuels might
(a) drive food prices up
(b) drive food prices down
(c) have little or no impact food prices.
(a) drive food prices up
- The increased production of palm oil
(a) just affects the environment
(b) just affect people
(c) affects both people and the environment.
(c) affects both people and the environment
- The author of the report says that biofuels
(a) have no role to play in fighting global environment.
(b) can be effective in fighting global warming on their own.
(c) should be part of a group of measures to fight global warming.
(c) should be part of a group of measures to fight global warming.
Q.2: Read the passage carefully and the questions that follows: Intelligence Pills
Some scientists have predicted that healthy adults and children may one day take drugs to improve their intelligence and intellectual performance. A research group has suggested that such drugs might become as common coffee or tea within the ment couple of decades.
To counter this, students taking exams might have to take drugs tests like athletes. There are already drugs that are known to improve mental performance like Ritalin, which is given to children with problems concentrating. A drug given to people with trouble sleeping also helps people remember numbers.
These drugs raise serious legal and moral questions, but people already take vitamins to help them remember things better, so it will not be a simple problem to solve. It will probably be very difficult to decide at what point a food supplement becomes an unfair drug in an examination.
- Only children will take pills to improve their intellectual performance.
(c) Doesn’t say
- Intelligence Pills are already as common as coffee or tea.
(c) Doesn’t say
- Coffee is as common as tea
(c) Doesn’t say
(c) Doesn’t say
- Students could have to take intelligence drugs tests.
(c) Doesn’t say
Q.3: Read the following passage and answer the questions below it in the content of the passage.
An earthquake comes likes a thief in the night, without warning. It was necessary therefore to invent instruments that neither slumbered nor slept. Some devices were quite simple. One, for instance, consisted of
rods of various lengths and thickness which would stand up on end like ninepins. When a shock came it shook the rigid table upon which these stood. If it were gentle, only the more unstable rods fell. If it were severe, they all fell. Thus the rods by falling and by the direction in which they fell, recorded for the slumbering scientist, the strength of a shock that was too weak to wake him and the direction from which it came. But, instruments far more delicate than that were needed if any really serious advance was to be made.
The ideal to be aimed at was to device an instrument that could record with a pen on paper the movements, of the ground or of the table as the quake passed by. While I write my pen moves but the paper keeps still. With practice no doubt, I could, in time, learn to write by holding the pen still while the paper moved. That sounds a silly suggestion, but that was precisely the idea adopted in some of the early instruments (seismometers) for recording earthquake waves. But when table penholder and paper all moving how is it possible to write legibly? The key to a solution of that problem lay in an everyday observation. Why does a person standing in a bus or train tend to fall when a sudden start is made? It is because his feet move on, but his head stay still.
- This passage says that early instruments for measuring
(a) faulty in design
(c) not sturdy
(d) not sensitive enough
(d) not sensitive enough.
- Why was it necessary to invent instruments to observe an
(a) because an earthquake comes like a thief in the night.
(b) To make people alert about earthquake during their conscious as well as unconscious hours.
(c) To prove that we are technically advanced.
(d) To experiment with the control of man over nature.
(a) because an earthquake comes like a thief in the night.
- A simple device which consisted of rods that stood up on end like ninepins was replaced by a more sophisticated one because it failed
(a) to measure a gentle earthquake
(b) to measure a severe earthquake
(c) to record the direction of the earthquake
(d) to record the facts with a pen on paper
(d) to record the facts with a pen on paper.
- The everyday observation referred to in the passage relates to:
(a) a moving bus’or train
(b) the sudden start of a bus
(c) the tendency of a standing person to fall when a bus or train moves suddenly
(d) people standing in a bus or train
(c) the tendency of a standing of a person to fall when a bus or train moves suddenly.
- The early seismom’etres adopted the idea that in order to record the earthquake, it is
(a) the pen that should move just as it moves when we write on paper.
(b) the pen that should stay still and the paper should move.
(c) both pen and paper that should move.
(d) neither pen nor paper that should move.
(b) the pen that should stay still and the paper should move.
Q.4: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below it in the content of the passage.
Our voyage was very prosperous, but I shall not trouble the reader with a journal of it. The captain called in at one or two parts and sent in his long boat for provisions and fresh water, but I never went out of the ship still we came into the Downs, which was on the 3rd day of June, 1706, about nine months after my escape. I offered to leave my goods in security for payment of my freight, but the captain protested he would not receive one farthing. We took kind leave of each other, and I made’ him promise that he would come to see me at my house in Redniff. I hired a house and a guide for five shillings which I borrowed from the captain.
- When the writer was the word ‘prosperous’ to describe the voyage, he means that
(a) it made him rich
(b) it made him healthy
(c) it was very pleasant
(d) it was uneventful
(c) it was very pleasant.
- On the voyage, the author
(a) left the ship at intervals
(b) was not able to leave the ship because it did not stop
(c) never left the ship at all
(d) never left the ship till they came into the Downs
(d) never left the ship till they came into the downs.
- In the content of the passage, the word ‘Provisions’ means
(a) mainly food
(b) mainly security
(d) mainly ammunition
(a) mainly food.
- For the payment of the author’s freight, the captain
(a) kept his goods as security
(b) refused to accept any mdney
(b) protested against being paid only a farthing
(d) accepted a sum of money
(b) refused to accept any money.
- From the passage, it is clear that the captain’s attitude to the author was
(a) one of hostility
(b) one of indifference
(c) one of extreme friendliness and kindness
(d) one of disgust and imitation
(c) one of extreme friendliness and kindness.
Q.5: Questions 1-4 are about the following announcement.
Student volunteers Needed!
|Make posters||1 P.M.-4P.M.||December 5th|
|Set up gym||11 A.m.-4 P.M.||December 11th|
|Help performers||9 A.M.-4 P.M.||December 12th|
|Welcome guests||10 A.M.-2 P.M.||December 12lh|
|Clean up gym||4 P.M.-7 P.M.||December 12th|
On Saturday, December 12th, from 10 A.M. until 4 P.M. Carverton Middle School will be holding a music festival in the school gymnasium. The special event will feature a variety of professional musicians and singers.
Interested students should speak with Ms. Braxton, the music teacher. Students who would like to help at the festival must have written permission from a parent or guardian.
- What time will the festival begin?
(a) 10 A.M.
(b) 11 A.M.
(c) 1 P.M.
(d) 2 P.M.
- In line 3, the word feature is closet in meaning to ……………
- What job will be done the day before the festival begins?
(a) Making posters
(b) Setting up the gym
(c) Cleaning up the gym
(d) Helping the performers
- Who is told to talk to Ms. Braxton?
Questions 5-11 refer to the following story.
“Did you see that?” Joe said to his friend Bill.
“You’re a great shooter!”
Bill caught the basketball and bounced it before throwing it again. The ball flew into the net “Bill, you never miss!” Joe said admiringly.
“ Unless I’m in a real game,” Bill complained “Then I miss all the time.”
Joe knew that Bill was right. Bill performed much better when he was having fun with Joe in the school yard than he did when he was playing for the school team in front of a large crowd.
“May be you just need to practice more” Joe suggested “But I practice all the time with you! ” Bill objected.
He shook his head.“I just can’t play well when people are watching me.”
“You play well when I’m watching,” Joe pointed out. “That’s because I’ve known you since we were five years old,” Bill said with a smile. “I’m just not comfortable playing when other people are around.”
Joe nodded and understood, but he also had an idea. The next day Joe and Bill met in the school yard again to practice . After a few minutes, Joe excused himself.
“Practice without me,” Joe said to his friend.”l’ll be back in a minute.”
Joe hurried through the school building, gathering together whomever he could find-two students, a math teacher, two secretaries, and a janitor. When Joe explained why he needed them, everyone was happy to help.
Joe reminded the group to stay quiet as they all went toward the school’s basketball court, As Joe had hoped,
Bill was still practicing basketball. He made five baskets in a row without noticing the silent people standing behind him.
“Hey, Bill!” joe called out finally.
Bill turned. A look of surprise came over his face.
“I just wanted to show you that you could play well with people watching you,” Joe said, “Now you’ll have nothing to worry about for the next game!”
- What would be the best title for the story?
(a) Joe joins the Team
(b) Practice makes perfect
(c) Bill Wins the Big Game
(d) Bill’s basketball Problem.
- In line 8, the word performed is closest in meaning to ……………
(a) acted *
[Chapter 4] Comprehension Passages
- Why is Bill upset?
(a) He plays better in practice than he does during games.
(b) The school yard is not a good place to practice
(c) Joe watches him too closely when he plays.
(d) His team loses too many games.
- Why does Bill play well when Joe is watching him?
(a) He is comfortable with Joe.
(b) Joe tells him how to play better.
(<c} He does not know that Joe is there.
(a) % He wants to prove to Joe that he is a good player.
- Why does Joe decide together a group of people?
(a) Because he wants more players for his team
(b) Because he wants to help Bill feel less nervous
(c) Because he wants to show them his talent
(d) Because he wants more people to see the next game.
- At the end of the story, all of the following people watch Bill practice EXCEPT.
(b) a janitor
(c) a jnath teacher
(d) the basketball coach
- Why does the group have to be quiet when they go to the basketball court?
(a) Because Joe is telling Bill what to do ‘b) Because they do not want Bill to know they were there ‘ Because Bill likes to practice alone ^Because the group needs to listen to Joe’s instructions.
- 12-20 are about the following passage.
Another old cave is discovered in the south of s not usually news. Rather, it •y event. Such discoveries are so frequent at hardly anybody pays heed to them.
the Lascaux cave complex was
directly on its walls were hundreds of scenes showing how people lived thousands of years ago. The scenes show people hunting animals, such as bison or wild cats. Other images depict birds and, most noticeably, horses, which appear in more than 300 wall images, by far outnumbering all other animals.
Early artists drawing these animals accomplished a monumental and difficult task. They did not limit themselves to the easily accessible walls but carried their painting materials to spaces that required climbing steep walls or crawling into narrow passages in the Lascaux complex. Unfortunately, the paintings have been exposed to the destructive action of water and temperature changes, which easily wear the images away. Because the Lascaux caves have many entrances, air movement has also damaged the images inside. Although they are not out in the open air, where natural light would have destroyed them long ago, many of the images have deteriorated and are barely recognizable. To prevent further damage, the site was closed to tourists in 1963,
23 years after it was discovered.
- Which title best summarises the main idea of the passage?
(a) Wild Animals in Art
(b) Hidden Prehistoric Paintings
(c) Exploreing Caves Respectfully
(d) Determining the Age of French Caves
- In line 4, the words pays heed to are closest in meaning to ……………
- Based on the passage, what is probably true about the south of France?
(a) It is home to rare animals.
(c) It is known for horse-racing events.
(d) it has attracted many famous artists.
- According to the passage, which animals appear most often on the cave walls?
(d) Wild cats
- In the line 10, the word depict is closest in meaning to …………… .
- Why was painting inside the Lascaux complex a difficult task?
(a) It was completely dark inside.
(b) The caves were full of wild animals.
(c) Painting materials were hard to find.
(d) Many painting spaces were difficult to reach.
- In line 14, the word They refers to .
- According to the passage, all of the following have caused damage to
the paintings EXCEPT …………… .
(a) temperature changes
(b) air movement
- What does the passage say happened at the Lascaux caves in 1963?
(a) Visitors were prohibited from entering.
(b) A new lighting system was installed.
(c) Another part was discovered.
(d) A new entrance was created.
OTHER PASSAGES FOR PRACTICE
- Conversation is indeed the most easily teachable of all arts. All you need to do in order to become a good conversationalist is to find a subject that interests you and your listeners. There are, for example, numberless hobbies to talk about. But the important thing is that you must talk about other fellow’s hobby rather than yourown. Therein lies the secret of your popularity. Talk to your friends about the things that interest them and you will get a reputation for good fellowship, charming wit, and a brilliant mind. There is nothing that pleases people so much as your interest in their interest.
- It is just as important to know what subjects to avoid and what subject to select for good conversation. If you don’t want to be set down blanket or a bore, be careful to avoid certain unpleasant subject talking about yourself, unless you are asked to do sointerested in their own problems not in yours. Sickness everybody. The only one who willingly listens to such but he gets paid for it.
- To be a good conversationalist you must know not how also to say it. Be mentally quick and witty. your wit. Finally try to avoid mannerism in your lips or click your tongue, or roll excessively as you speak.
- Don’t be like that Frenchman who said, “How can I talk if you hold my hand?”
Q.1: Make notes an the contents of above paragraph in any format, using abbreviations. Supply a suitable title also. (5 marks)
The Art of Conversation Notes:
- Conv’n-most easily tch’ble art
(a) Read interest’g subject-hobbies
(b) Talk about other fellow’s int/hobby
(c) Win’g reptn. as good conversationalist
(i) good f’ship
(ii) charm’g wit
(iii) brl. mind
- Fit subs, for conversationalist
(a) What subs, to avoid/select?
(b) Avoid unpl’nt subs.
(c) Avoid talk’g about self
- Qualities’s of a good conversationalist
(a) What to say and how to say it
(b) Ment’y quick and witty
(c) Pleasant and unhunt’g
(d) Avoid mannerisms.
Q.2: Make a summary of the passage. (3 marks)
Convirsation is the easiest and the most effective tool than other arts. To havesuch attractive quality, you need to pick a subject that interest your listnes more than you. Talk to your friends on topics that can indulge your friers in the conversation for a longer period of time. Being a good corwsationalist, you have to quick and witty. You should have a pleasant andnhurting quality. Mannerism should be avoided.
- A good business letter is one that gets results. The best way to get results is to develop a letter that, in its appearance, style and content, conveys information efficiently. To perform this function, a business letter should be concise, clear and courteous.
- The business letter should concise: don’t waste words. Little introduction or preliminary chat is necessary. Get to the point, make the point, and leave it. It is safe to assume that your letter is being read by a very busy person with all kinds of papers to deal with a Re-read and revise your message until the words and sentences you have used are precise. This takes time, but is a necessary part of a good business letter. A short business letter that makes its point quickly has much more impact on a reader than a long-winded, rambling exercise in creative writing. This does not mean that there is no place for style and even, on occasion, humour in the business letter. While it conveys a message in its contents, the letter also provides the reader with an impression of you, its author the medium is part of the message.
- The business letter must be clear. You should have a very firm idea of what you want to say, and you should let the reader know it. Use the structure of the letter-the paragraphs, topic sentences, introduction and conclusion-to guide the reader point by point from your thesis, though your reasoning, to your conclusion. Paragraph often, to break up the page and to lend an air of organisation to the letter. Use an accepted business-letter format. Re-read what you have written from the point of view of someone who is seeing it for the first time, and be sure that all explanations are adequate, all information provided (including reference numbers, dates, and other identification). A clear message, clearly delivered, is the essence of business communication.
- The business letter mu6t be courteous. Sarcasm and insults are ineffective and can often work against you. If you are sure you are right, point that out as politely as possible, explain why you are right, and outline what the reader is expected to do about it. Another form of courtesy is taking care in your writing and typing of the business letter.
Grammatical and spelling errors (even if you call them typing errors) tell a reader that you don’t think enough of him or can lower the reader’s opinion of your personality faster than anything you say, no matter how idiotic. There are excuses for ignorance; there are no excuses for sloppiness.
- The business letter is your custom-made representative. It speaks for you and is a permanent record of your message. It can pay big dividends on the time you invest in giving it a concise message, a clear structure, and a courteous tone.
Title: Writing a Business Letter Notes:
- Features of a gd. busns results
1.1 conveys info efficiently to get letter
1.2 is concise
1.3 is clear
1.4 is courteous
- How to write a gd. busns. letter
2.1 Making letter concise
2.1.1 Intro shd be brief
2.1.2 Make your pt in precise words and sent’s
2.1.3 Short letr more effective
2.1.4 Style is imp.-may ocasnly have hum’r
2.2 Achieving clarity
2.2.1 Have a clear idea of what you wish to say
2.2.2 Structr the letter-intro & conclsn
2.2.3 Use accepted format; para, topic, sent’s
2.2.4 Check facts, expl’ns, refs.
2.3 Being courteous
2.3.1 Expl’n your pt. politely-avoid sarcasm/insults
2.3.2 Careful wrtg & typg.
2.3.3 Gram. & spel’g errors to be avoided
- Importance of busns. letr
3.1 a representative
3.2 permanent ree. message.
A good business letter is that lends you positive and quality results. To get such results, a business letter should be effective in appearance, style and content. Apart from this a letter should be concise, clear and courteous. The business letter should be to the point as the message can be clear to the reader with an impression of you. The structure of letter should have topic sentence, introduction, paragraphs to conclusion. Reread the points you have written to avoid sarcasm and insults that can work against your motive. Further more grammar and spelling errors need to be avoided.
Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
The worst days of any summer are the rainy ones. We spend all year looking forward to nice weather and long, hot days. All of winter, with its dreary gray days and bitter cold, we dream of those endless days at the beach, laying on the sand and soaking in the bright and burning sun. And then, summer comes, and it rains. As a child, I would wake up to rainy summer days and come close to crying. It wasn’t fair. We suffered though months of school and miserable weather for those scant ten weeks of freedom and balmy weather. Any day that I could not spend at the beach or playing ball with my friends seemed like a punishment for something I didn’t even do.
On those rainy summer days, I had nothing fun to do and could only sit inside, staring out at the rain like a Dickensian orphan. I was an only child, so there was no one else to play with. My father worked from home, so I was not truly alone, but he could not actively play with me since he was technically at work. It was those days that I would resign myself to whatever was on television or any books that I could find lying around. I’d crawl through the day and pray each night that the rain would not be there the next day. As an adult, though, my opinion of summer rain has changed. When you have to work every day, summer is not as eagerly anticipated. Mostly, the days run together, bleeding into each other so that they no longer seem like separate entities and instead feel like continuations of the same long
day. Everything seems monotonous and dull, and an ennui or listlessness kicks in. Such a mindset makes you cheer for anything new or different. I spend the winter dreaming of summer and the summer dreaming of winter. When summer comes, I complain about how hot it is. And then I look forward to the rain, because the rain brings with it a cold front, which offers a reprieve-admittedly one that is all too short-from thetorture of 100° and humid days. Rainy days are still the worst days of the summer, but summer rain today means positively beautiful-and considerably cooler-weather tomorrow.
- The passage makes use of language that is
- According to the passage, summer is different for adults because
(a) rain brings with it cold temperatures for the following days
(b) the weather is much warmer than it is for children
(c) they do not get a long time off from work for the season
(d) they better know how to occupy their downtime
- According to the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the narrator as a child?
(a) he or she was often bored on summer days.
(b) he or she preferred cooler weather.
(c) he or she liked staying indoors.
(d) he or she had no siblings.
- Compared to how he or she was as a child, the narrator as an adult is
(a) more realistic
(b) less excitable
(c) more idealistic
(d) less calm
- As used in the final paragraph, the word reprieve most nearly means
(a) a permanent conclusion
(b) a short continuation
(c) a higher level of pain
(d) a temporary break
The Seven Ages of Man
All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts.
His acts being seven ages, At first the infant,
Mewling … in the nurse’s arms.
And then the whining schoolboy, with his satchel And shining morning face … And then the lover,
Sighing like a furnace … Then a soldier Full of strange oaths … jealous of honor,
Sudden and quick in quarrel… and then the justice …
Full of wise saws and modern instances;
And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts Into the lean and slippered pantaloon.
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side.
… and his big manly voice, Turning again toward Childish treble, pipes and whistles in his sound.
Last scene of all,
That ends this strange eventful history,
Is second childishness, and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.
- What attitude does the speaker reveal by using the word merely in the second line?
2, What characterizes the period of life represented by the soldier?
(a) brash behavior.
(b) his sense of honor.
(c) his dedication to duty.
(d) his fear of cowardice.
- What is the main idea of this poem?
(a) Life is a misery that never gets any better at any time.
(b) Life is what each of us makes of it during our journey down the river of eternity.
(c) Life is a play and it follows a specific script, none of which should cause anguish or sorrow.
(d) Life is a comedy, and we are all buffoons in pantaloons no matter what we do.
- What is the theme of the poem?
(a) Death is to be feared.
(b) Life is a circle that brings us back to the beginning.
(c) The male of the species is the only true measure of the stages of life.
(d) The stages of life are unrelated and can be altered by each individual’s free will.
- The poet uses the words merely (line 2) and mere (line 20).
(a) to soften the effect of the strong images he presents to us in those lines.
(b) to tie together his theme of the cycle of life.
(c) convey his tone to the reader.
(d) all of the above.
*This article contains all topics about Comprehension Passages- BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTING
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