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COMMUNICATION CA Foundation notes

COMMUNICATION – CA Foundation, CPT notes, PDF

This article is about COMMUNICATION- BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTING for CA foundation CPT students. we also provide PDF file at the end.



What we will study in this chapter:

Objective Questions

Past Year Questions and Answers

2004 – Dec [2] State with reasons which of the following statements are true or false. Your answer to each statement should not exceed 30 words. (Attempt any ten):

(i) Communication involves only sending of a message.

(ii) No one can be held responsible for informal communication.

(iii) Encoding the matter is an important element of communication.

(iv) Vertical communication and horizontal communication are one and the same.

(v) Body language generally speaks the truth while speaker may play with words to hide the truth.

(vi) Offensive language is a sure way to build goodwill and reputation.

(vii) Verbal communication is inclusive of written communication.

(viii) Truth and coherence are of equal importance in communication.

(ix) Feedback is merely wastage of time, energy and efforts.

(x) Effective messages are invariably you-centered. (10 marks)


(i) False : Communication involvers exchange of facts, ideas, or opinions between the two Sender and Receiver.

(ii) True : Informal communication does not move through formal channels and is therefore difficult to record, and locate the source.

(iii) True : Encoding provides concrete shape in words or in symbols and is therefore an important element of communication.

(iv) False : Vertical communication flows from top to bottom, i.e. between superior and subordinates where as horizontal communication comprises of communication among the members at the same level of the hierarchy.

(v) True: One can misrepresent facts by false speaking but cannot hide its emotion which come out through body language, which generally speaks the truth.

(vi) False : Offensive language results into hatred and leads into ill-will, proves to be ineffective communication.

(vii) True : Verbal communication includes both written and oral communication, and use words for expression.

(viii) True : Coherence ensures proper link between words sentences and paragraphs where as truth provides credibility.

(ix) False : Feedback helps the sender in knowing that the receiver has received correct message and understood it in the same sense. Feedback is not a waste of time, energy and efforts.

(x) True : All messages are encoded keeping in mind the attributes of the receiver. The use of the word ‘you’ is more rather than T ‘we’ etc. due to this reader finds it more interesting.

2005 – June [2] State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false. Your answer to each statement should not exceed 30 words:

(i) Communication requires a medium.

(ii) Written communication is at times better than oral communication.

(iii) Oral communication is economical.

(iv) Communication is culture bound.

(v) Feedback is the culmination of the communication process.

(vi) While encoding the message, we must take into account the attributes of the receiver.

(vii) Facts lend credibility to our communication.

(viii) In a vertical structure, all the important decisions are taken at the bottom.

(ix) Information never gets distorted or filtered while passing through different levels of hierarchy.

(x) We should use ‘respected Sir’ as salutation while addressing letter to a firm.

(xi) Complimentary close should match the salutation.

(xii) Brevity is the soul of business communication.                                           (1 mark each)


(i) True : Communication requires a medium to enable transmission of the message.

(ii) True : Written communication may be used as evidence and also can be produced in future.

(iii) True : Oral communication is economical as it saves man-hours to be spent in preparing circulars and also saves the stationary spent on such notes.

(iv) True : A word or gesture may have different meanings in different


(v) True : Feedback is the culmination of communication process as it confirms that the receiver has correctly understood the message.

(vi) True : While encoding the message the sender must keep in mind the educational and cultural level of the receiver.

(vii) True : Facts lend credibility as they cannot be denied by anyone.

(viii) False : All important decisions are taken at the top in a vertical structure form of organisation.

(ix) False : Information gets distorted or filtered as it passes through more number of hierarchical levels.

(x) False : A letter addressed to the firm should have Dear Sirs as the salutation.

(xi) True : Complimentary close must match the salutation as, sir yours truly,

Dear Sir- yours faithfully Dear Mr. Singh – yours sincerely

(xii) False : Brevity without vitiating the contents is the soul of good communication.

2005 – Dec [2] State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false. Your answer to each statement should not exceed 30 words.

(i) Communication is an inherent part of a manager’s role and takes up the majority of the manager’s time on the job.

(ii) Culture is the foundation of communication.

(iii) Kinesic behaviour is a form bf written communication.

(iv) Proxemics deals with eye contact.

(v) Paralanguage refers to how something is said rather than the content.

(vi) Time also communicates in business.

(vii) The speed with which message is transmitted may at times be a cause of misinterpretation.

(viii) Though English is in common use in business world, it would be better to use local language.

(ix) Face-to-face interaction being the best way of feedback, companies always use only this method.

(x) Decoding is required only once in a two-way communication.

(xi) Grapevine is part of formal communication.

(xii) Despite being expensive, the visual mode of communication is

superior to the audio mode. (1 Vi marks each)


(i) True : Communication, is an inherent part of a manager’s role as they spent 90% of their time communicating with people.

(ii) True: Culture integrates the pattern of human knowledge, belief and behaviour for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations.

(iii) False : Kinesics is the non-verbal behaviour related to movement of the body or body parts.

(iv) False : Proxemics, deals with the amount of space maintained by people in different situations and cultures.

(v) True : Paralanguage reminds us that people convey their feelings not only in what they say, but also in how they say it.

(vi) True : Time is as important as money. Money lost can be re-earned but time once lost cannot be recovered.

(vii) True: High speed message transference cause misinterpretation of the message and this leads to communication failure.

(viii) True : The use of local language removes the problem of exact meanings of words, nuances, phrases, slang language, and also establishes a direct and informal contact with the local people.

(ix) False : In long distances dealings there are limitations to the use of face-to-face interaction.

(x) False : Decoding is required in both, when the original message is received by the receiver and also when the receiver sends its feedback.

(xi) False: Grapevine is the informal transmission of information, gossip or rumour from person to person.

(xii) True : The use of pictures, charts, diagrams graphics aids ensure that the message is easily remembered by the receiver for a longer duration.

2006 – June [2] State, with reason (s), whether the following statements are true or false. Your answer to each statement should not exceed 30 words.

(i) Decoding takes place only once in the process of communication.

(ii) Feedback makes communication effective.

(iii) A good system of communication makes use of both oral and written messages.

(iv) Colour does not communicate.

(v) Two crossed bones under a skull’ convey nothing.

(vi) Oral communication is very popular in all kinds of organisations.

(vii) Time also communicates. {V/z marks each)


(i) False : Decoding is required in both, when the original message is received by the receiver and also when the receiver sends its feedback.

(ii) True : Feedback confirms the receipt of the message and its understanding to the receiver.

(iii) True : Organisation uses both oral and written form of communication for its growth and survival.

(iv) False : Colours communicate, e.g. traffic signals of Red, Yellow and Green colour communicate to stop, to get ready and to go,


(v) False : It conveys danger signal.

(vi) True : Oral communication has quick response, greater flexibility, direct contact are is cost effective.

(vii) True : Time is as important as money. Money lost can be re-earned but time once lost cannot be recovered.

2006 – Dec [2] (a) State, giving reason, whether the following statements are true or false. Your answer to each statement need not exceed 30 words :

(i) Face to face interactions are better than electronic communication

to create mutual understanding and trust.                                                                 (2 marks)

(ii) In a normal conversation between two persons, non-verbal

communication plays a greater role.                                                                         (2 marks)-

(iii) Oral communication saves time.                                                                         (2 marks)


(i) True: Altered body chemistry can be experienced in face to face meetings. Mutual understanding and trust are increased through secretion of hormones such as oxytocin. High speed electronic communication may stip it of value and sophistication.

(ii) True: According to Edward Hall, in a normal conversation between two persons, less that 35% of the social meanings are actually transmitted by words while about 35% is conveyed through nonverbal chain i.e., the body language.

(iii) True: When action needs to be taken instantly or immediately, the best way to communicate is to do so orally. Oral communication helps receive instant feedback and enables us to modify the message. It thus saves time and quickens the follow-up action.

2007 – June [2] (b) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are correct or incorrect.

(i) Communication is a circular process.

(ii) Verbal communication means oral communication.

(iii) Your business card says volumes about you.

(iv) The formal channel of communication is also called ‘grapevine’.

(v) Flowers have their own language.

(vi) Sending MIS report is a form of an upward communication.

(2 marks each)


(i) Correct : Communication begins and ends on the sender who initiates communication.

(ii) In correct : Verbal communication includes use of words, which may be written or spoken.

(iii) Correct : A well designed business cards helps you stand apart from others and it is a testament to the culture prevalent in the organisation; the card holder is working with.

(iv) In Correct: Grapevine is an informal form of communication.

(v) Correct : Flowers convey emotions differently on different occasions-

Sympathy on death; love in romance; congratulation on promotion, respect to elders, and warmth to youngsters.

(vi) Correct: Mis reports are prepared for and submitted to superiors to take appropriate actions and decisions.

2007 – Dec [2] (b) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are correct or incorrect.

(i) Meaning of the communication is in the mind.

(ii) Verbal communication is inclusive of written communication.

(iii) Grapevine network can be good for the business.

(iv) Non-verbal communication happens continuously.

(v) During presentations, the presenter should concentrate on the visuals and not the audience.

(vi) Hearing is the same as listening.

(vii) Misspoken and miswritten communications bach year cost people their careers and cost companies their profits.                                                                                                                (2 marks each)


(i) In correct: Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions between two-or more persons.

(ii) Correct: Verbal communication includes use of words, which may be written or spoken.

(iii) Correct: Grapevine is effective in generating creative solutions to short-term problems which formal channels are unable to provide.

(iv) Correct : Body language, gestures, vocal changes provide lot of signals to our behaviour and communication.

(v) Incorrect: Eye contact is more essential that the visual contact, to the audience for effective communication.

(vi) Incorrect : Hearing is the physical capacity to sense sounds, whereas listening is required to perceive meaning and achieve understanding.

(vii) Correct: Failure to communicate in organization may cause delay in achieving targets.

2008 – June [2] (b) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are correct or incorrect.

(i) An unspoken or unwritten message that uses body language is known as verbal communication.

(ii) “Words ought to mean what they say”.- The Times.

(iii) Written communication is always a wasteful activity.

(iv) Feedback is communication about communication.

(v) We also frequently communicate by our silence.

(vi) Speak-Do not read aloud.

(vii) We should prepare ourselves to communicate with conviction.

(2 marks each)


(i) Incorrect: Verbal communication is written or spoken message that uses words to exchange information.

(ii) Correct: Words used in the communication process should mean the same thing that we want to convey.

(iii) Incorrect: Written communication is mandatory for legal and future reference requirements.

(iv) Correct: Feedback is a response from the receiver to the sender.

(v) Correct: Through silence, we may communicate our indifference.

(vi) Correct: The best speeches are spoken with passion and feeling.

(vii) Correct : The sender should always possess the correct and relevant fact to the receiver after careful preparation and revision.

2008 – Dec [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are correct or incorrect.

(i) In communication, it pays to increase your word-power.

(ii) Communication should not only be made, but it should appear to have been made.

(iii) Non-verbal communication is not universal.

(iv) Silence is also speech.

(v) You cannot simultaneously use both verbal and non-verbal communication forms.

(vi) Flowers have a language for all occasions.

(vii) Grapevine always provides correct information. (10 marks)


(i) Correct: With a good vocabulary, we can become more expressive.

(ii) Correct: Communication is a two way process, it has to be visible for the sake of record.

(iii) In Correct: Non-verbal communication is used by all human beings for e.g. feelings, emotions, aggression etc. are used by all to express themselves.

(iv) Correct : Mere silence is also speech as it communicates lack of interest or understanding and even refused.

(v) In Correct : Both verbal and non-verbal communicates often go together.

For e.g. A Person raises his hand to mark his presence or attendance.

(vi) Correct: Flowers are expensive and convey meaning according to the situation one is in e.g. on birth, they convey happiness & on death, they convey sorrow.

(vii) In Correct : Grapevine communicates rumours and only half – truths, and it is not an official mode of communication.

2009 – June [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are correct or incorrect.

(i) Communication is a dance -something that happens between people. Every dance is different and every dancer is different.

(ii) It is better to keep your mouth shut and appear a fool than to open

youf mouth and prove it. K

(iii) Communication is irreversible.

(iv) You have eyes but do not see. People have ears but do not hear.

(v) Studies have revealed that people retain 10% of what they read, 20% of what they see, 30% of what they hear, and 50% of what they hear and see.

(vi) General appearance has nothing to do with non-verbal communication.

(vii) Colours have their own language and meaning.                                       (2 marks each)


(i) Correct: Communicatipn happens between and among the people. Communication is done keeping in mind variety of situations which are all different and with different people.

(ii) Correct : When one has to deliver a better communication, the speaker thinks first, before delivering any speech.

(iii) Correct: Communication is irreversible as once a message is sent it cannot be taken back. Once there is a ship of tongue, it results into emotional out burst.

(iv) Correct: When the listeners are disinterested in the topic they fail to see and hear.

(v) Correct: One has to present the communication skills and shall in corporate all the five senses of sight, hearing, small, fell and taste in his presentation. Thus making it more appalling to all.

(vi) Incorrect : General appearance also forms a part of non-verbal communication and conveys more about age, height, weight, and physical characteristics and hence enhances one’s individual personality.

(vii) Correct: Colours have their own meaning as red denotes to stop, danger, and green colour denotes to charge or to go ahead.

2009 – Dec [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are correct or incorrect.

(i) Culture is communication and communication is culture.

(ii) The words in themselves carry the meaning.

(iii) * The words ‘okay’, ‘you know’ and ‘hai’ the non-word vocalisers, are


(iv) Your voice is like a musical instrument.

(v) Raising an eyebrow does not signify anything.

(vi) Communication takes many forms.

(vii) Silence is not always golden.                                                                     (2 marks each)


(i) Correct: Communication is influenced by culture, lack of cultural . familiarity results into communication failure.

(ii) Incorrect : The words in themselves may not carry the entire meaning. The non-verbal communication, adds meaning and weight to it.

(iii) Correct : Use of such words like ‘Okay’, ‘you know’, and ‘hai’ helps the speaker gain time and analyse the feedback.

(iv) Correct: Intonation helps us communicate our voice and its varying pitch produce affects the meaning.

(v) Incorrect: Raising of an eye-brow signifies anger or disagreement.

(vi) Correct: Communication may be verbal and non-verbal.

(vii) Correct: Silence may be wrongly interpreted as acceptance of a proposal. Silence in face to face communication means unwillingness to provide feedback.

2010 – June [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are correct or incorrect.

(i) The two mistakes most organisations make during difficult times are—not communicating enough and not communicating well enough.

(ii) The two words—‘please’ and ‘thank you’ have been used too much and in future they should be used sparingly.

(iii) Words can hurt.

(iv) All the channels through which message is sent across have the same strengths and weaknesses.



(v) Formality kills conversation.

(vi) Gossip at work is always unwelcome.

(vii) . To communicate ideas, they are often given various forms.

(2 marks each)

(i) Correct; Majority of the cases of misunderstanding and confusion

* are the result of miscommunication’. organizations spend lot of time

in over coming their delayed tasks, and are not able to communicate properly with their employees and therefore it leads to confusion.

(ii) Incorrect; The two words “Thank you” and please are the most powerful business words and largely affect all the business operations.

(iii) Correct; A hard word, or a harsh sentence or an insensitive phone can destroy relationship, reputations and can even destroy careers.

(iv) Incorrect; Different channels posses different strengths and weaknesses. You have to do your best to match your selection to your message and your intentions.

(v) Correct, Formality of the medium must be suitable to content of the , message.

(vi) Incorrect; Gossips significantly, augments our understanding of human nature and the world around us, and it also benefits us at work.

(vii) Correct; Effective expression of ones ideas in writing and in speech results into better communication through various forms.

2010 – Dec [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are true or false.

(i) Communication is the ‘life blood’ of every organisation.

(ii) Horizontal communication between peers is a luxury.

(iii) External communication can have a far-reaching impact on a firm’s reputation and ultimate success.

(iv) Feedback may take many forms.

(v) In some occupations, actions speak louder than words.

Answer :

(vi) Raising an eyebrow does not signify anything.

(vii) Always see your message from your receivers’ point of view.

(2 marks each)

(i) Correct : In order to interact and react, every organisation is required to communicate and exchange ideas and facts.

(ii) Incorrect: Horizontal communication is important for coordination and planning, requests, suggestions, advice may be exchanged uniformally.

(iii) Correct : External communication helps organisations to actively build up their image in a positive way by monitoring and setting up relationships with segments of the public through various media.

(iv) Correct : Feedback can take many forms, such as it cap be an emotional reaction, oral, or written message or simply silence.

(v) Correct: A traffic police man controls by pointing arms to stop or to move ahead.

Public in noisy stadiums or traffic in crowded streets often communicate by some action or gestures.

(vi) Incorrect: Raising an eyebrow signifies a complement, a question mark, or a doubt.

(vii) Correct: Communication becomes effective if the message is from Receiver’s point of view, and its need and culture.

2011 – June [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are true or false.

(i) Studies have revealed that people retain 10% of what they read, 20% of what they see, 30% of what they hear and 50% of what they hear and see.

(ii) Failing to communicate is communicating to fail.

.(iii) Words are the most powerful tool invented by human beings.

(iv) Gestures are as important as verbal communication.

(2 marks each)

(b) Find out the type of communication in the following cases along with the reason in support of your answer. Attempt any two:

(i) Ishu makes order for 10 air-conditioners of 2 tons each over phone to the air-conditioner manufacturer, which the company accepts instantly.

(ii) The manager issues.a memo to his subordinate on coming late.

(iii) Mansi, Training Manager, delivers her lecture to the trainees with the

help of electronic presentation.                                                                         (2 marks each)


(a) (i) True: While presenting any presentation one must take into account

what appeals to all the fire senses-of-sight, leaving small, feel and taste.

(ii) True: Net under standing the clear meaning of what to communicate results into communication failure.

(iii) True: As words allow the mind to see what one’s eyes cannot; they are the most powerful tool,

(iv) True: Gestures speak more than the words can signify e.g. Smile or a cry can signify our thoughts instantly.

(b) (i) Since the order was made over the phone-call it is an oral


(ii) Memos are written form of communication.,

(iii) Electronic Presentation includes-audio-visual form of communication.

2011 – Dec [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are true or false.

(i) Silence is not a means of communication.

(ii) Verbal communication can be either oral or written.

(iii) Group decisions are always good.

(iv) Only one standard format is there in which a business letter can be written.

(v) Written communication is not a creative activity.

(vi) It is the sole responsibility of the sender of the message to overcome, external barriers to communication.

(vii) Communication is a one way process.                                                      (2 marks each)



(a) (i) Incorrect: Silence can be an effective means of communicating varied emotions like shyness, discomfort, respect, indifference, fear, suspense, communication gap, sense of anticipation etc.

(ii) Correct: Verbal means connected with words and use of words. Words are accurate and powerful mans of communication which could be either spoken/oral or written.

(iii) Incorrect: Group decision-making suffers from a number of limitations like domination by few members, long unproductive discussion, high expense and difficulties of responsibility fixation.

(iv) Incorrect: A business letter can be written in any of the three standard formals-full block modified block and semi block.

(v) Incorrect: Written communication is based on conscious efforts that require act imagination and creativity. Therefore, it is a creative activity.

(vi) Incorrect: It is not the sender’s sole responsibility and he cannot always remove barriers to communication. He can try to overcome them for better communication. The external harriers are many a time not under his control.

(vii) Incorrect: Communication is a two way process as both the sender and the receiver of the message are involved in communication.

2012 – June [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following statements are true or false.

(i) An office order carries a stamp of authority with it and has to be accepted.

(ii) Hearing is synonymous to listening.

(iii) Communication varies in the culture and cultural background.

(iv) Gestures make communication more effective.

(v) Research studies show that at the work-place on an average employees spend about two-third time of their working time in listening.

(vi) Anger is the worst enemy of communication.

(vii) If the seller has undercharged the buyer, he may send a ‘credit note’ to the buyer.

(viii) Cluster chain communication is the most popular kind of formal

communication.                                                                                                 (2 marks each)


(a) (i) True: Office orders generally deal with matters affecting rights and privileges of employees. They are used for downward communication. They carry a number since they remain in force till revoked and are filed for future reference.

(ii) False: Listening is active with full attention to achieve understanding whereas hearing is the physical capacity to sense sounds.

(iii) True: Culture and cultural background determine the degree of intimacy in verbal and non verbal communication. We live in cultural diverse world where people from different background may have different approaches to varied aspects of life. Also the gesture, choice of words and body language are influenced by culture.

(iv) True: Gestures are very important as our facial expressions and movement of body parts speak more than the words can signify. E.g. smile or frown can signify our thoughts.

(v) False: At the work place, employees spend about 33% of their time in listening; 26% in speaking; 23% in writing and remaining 18 in other activities.

(vi) True: Anger is the worst enemy of communication because it creates blocks and walls in the mind.

(vii) False: If the seller has undercharged the buy6r, he may send a “Debit Note” to.the buyer. It shows the details of the error and it is sent to cover the amount of difference.

(viii) False: It is the most popular kind of grapevine communication or informal communication. It does not flow through the officially recognised channel and . it cuts across official lines of communication.

2012 – Dec [4] (a) State, with reasons in brief, whether the following

statements are true or false.

(i) Gestures are as important as verbal communication.

(ii) Grapevine is an official model of communication.


(iii) Notification and agenda mean the same thing.

(iv) Office orders are an upward form of communication.

(v) Noise is a physical barrier to communication.

(vi) Written communication is always a wasteful activity.

(2 marks each)

(i) True: Gestures are very important as our facial expressions can add to the meaning of our verbal message.

(ii) False: Grapevine is an unofficial mode of communication, which is often speculative and based on half-truths. It circulates among employees without official sanction.

(iii) False: Notification means an official notice, say of a meeting to be held while agenda means details of items of business to be discussed.

(iv) False: Office Orders record decisions relating to appointments, transfers, promotions, grant or withdrawal of increments etc. and can be issued only by superiors. Therefore, they are a downward form of communication.

(v) True: A Communication cycle is complete only when the message reaches the receiver as is intended. If it encounters noise at any level, there is a communication failure.

Descriptive Questions

(vi) False: Written communication is not a wasteful activity as it is necessary to maintain records of an organization and for complying with legal provisions.

2002 – Nov [1] (c) Comment on the following statement in about 30 words each:

(i) Communication does not simply involves sending of a message by a person.

(ii) Encoding the matter is an important element of communication.

(iii) Sign language cannot be complete substitute for a verbal, Communication in all cases.

(iv) Body language always speaks the truth while speaker may play with words to hide the truth.

(v) No one can be responsible for informal communication.

(vi) Horizontal communication facilitates co-ordination of interdependent

activities.,                                                                                                             (1 mark each)


(i) Communication does not simply involves sending of a message by a person: The communicator (the sender) must find out the effect and influence of his communication on the receiver. He must communicate his message in such a manner which is understandable and acceptable by the receiver. This requires serious consideration of the sender, in selecting the best and appropriate language and also the proper time for the purpose of communication.

(ii) Encoding the matter is an important element of communication:

Yes, it is true that encoding is an important element of communication. Because under this step, sender organises the ideas into a series of symbols, with the help of which they will be able to communicate the message to the intended receiver. It involves selection of the methods of communication as well as receiver. The wordings may be different in different messages to be sent through different methods.

(iii) Sign Language cannot be complete substitute for a yerbal communication is all cases: Sign language cannot be a corfiplete substitute for a verbal communication because it can communicate only elementary and simple ideas which again due to delayed feedback is likely to be misunderstood. They do not have any legal validity and is effective only when it is combined with verbal communication.

(iv) Body language always speaks the truth while speaker may play with word to hide the truth: Yes, it is true that body language always speaks the truth because it conveys the feelings, emotions, attitudes, reactions and responses. On the other hand, there is every possibility that spoken words may be taken in some other sense.

(v) No one can be responsible for informal communication:

Half-truth, rumours, and distorted informations are mostly carried by informal communication. In the absence of a mechanism for authentication of the news and views, the members of the organisation cannot be held responsible. Moreover, there is no chain of command to fix responsibilities.

(vi) Horizontal communication facilitates co-ordination of interdependent activities: Horizontal communication helps in co-ordinating the efforts of different departments of equal level, under the same boss. The managers of each department such as sales, purchase, production, finance and personnel sit together, to develop a common formula for achieving the organisational goals.

2002 – Nov [2] {C} (b) State the major limitation of Para language.

(3 marks)



  1. Para language aids the verbal communication. Verbal communication is incomplete without pa “a- language.
  2. One can very easily judge the speakers background both educational and cultural from the way he speaks.
  3. Para language also indicates the speakers position in the hierarchical structure of the organisation.
  4. Para language is also helpful in dealing with a particular person.
  5. Para language is not rigid and one can improve it by observing and listening the good speakers.


  1. Para language cannot be fully relied upon as it is only a like language.
  2. Listener has to be open minded otherwise the para language may prejudice him.
  3. Para language can thus be misleading or misguiding.
  4. It requires extra care to get the exact content of the language.
  5. Due to speakers belonging to different speech community it is difficult to achieve uniformity.

2003 – May [1] (c) Comment on the following statements in about 30 words each:

(i) The basic purpose of communication is to issue orders to

. subordinates.                                                                                                              (1 mark)

(ii) Communication need not be made in words alone.                                               (1 mark)

(iii) The space around us is also used as a source of communication.

(1 mark)

(iv) Communication is a social activity.                                                                        (1 mark)


(i) The basic purpose of communication is to issue orders to subordinates: At the top level of the management decision are made for executing those decisions orders which are issued to the subordinates to start the work. The workers associated with the project are continuously motivated and kept involved in the work. A sense of discipline is also developed among them and their morale is kept high. All this requires a constant two-way communication between the managers and the subordinates.

(ii)  Communication need not be made’ in words alone: Communication may be non verbal i.e. communication which does not involve words either written of spoken. It is more concerned with body movement, space, time, voice, tone, pitch, and any kind of audio or visual signals that the communication may use.

(iii)  The space around us is also used as a source of communication: Communication also takes place in the space around us. The distahce between the speakers reflect their relationship, feelings and attitude towards one another. Thus, the space around us contains and conveys a definite meaning. Proxemics is the study of how we communicate with the space around us.

(iv) Communication is a social activity:- Man being a socials animal has to interact with others. This is done by him through communication in an organisation. Effective communication satisfies the personal and social needs. It leads to increase the mutual trust and confidence between the management and the subordinates. Thus, communication is a social activity.

2003 – May [2] {C} (a) “Communication in an organisation is multidirectional.” Discuss the statement by explaining briefly the different types of channels of communication based on the direction of communication.                                                                                                                                    (7 marks)


Yes, it is true that communication in an organisation is multidirectional or multidimensional. There a various directions in which it flows. It usually takes the form of the pyramid.

On the basis of direction, communication may be of four types:

  1. Downward Communication: Communication that flows from the top level of the organisation to the bottom level along with the scalar chain are known as downward communication. Example for such type of communication are orders, instructions, rules, policies, programmes and directives etc. It specifies the extent of the subordinates authority and their responsibility.
  2. Upward Communication: Upward communication is just the opposite of downward communication. In this communication system, the message is transmitted from the bottom of the organisation upwards to the top of the organisation through the middle managers along with the line. Usually this includes workers grievances, suggestions and reactions. This communication system was not appreciated by the superiors. But it has assured importance in modern times and is considered to be a main source of motivating employees.-
  3. Horizontal Communication: The flow of information between departments or people of equal level in an organisational structure may be termed as horizontal or lateral communication. The two departments may be under the same superior or may have different heads. Such communication may be written or oral. The main object of lateral communication is to co-ordinate the efforts of different departments or persons.
  4. Diagonal Communication: Diagonal Communication is between people who are neither in the same department nor on the same level of organisational structure. It cuts across departmental lines. It generally takes place when members cannot communicate effectively through other channels.

These upward, downward, horizontal or diagonal communication may be oral, written, formal, informal or even gestural.

(vi) Courtesy: It refers to consideration for other peoples feelings. It is seen in an individuals behaviour with others. The style, the manner and the choice of words reflect the courtesy of the writer.

(vii) Correctness: It refers to using the right level of language, presenting all the ideas and information required for a particular situation. Correctness depends on completeness.

2011 – dec [4] (b) Explain the following with reference to t}Te essentials of an

effective business letter:

(i) Conversational style

(ii) ‘You’ attitude

(iii) Persuasion

(iv) Positive language

(v) Care for culture.                                                                                            (2 marks each)


(b) (i) Conversational Style: An effective letter is one that gives the impression of face to face communication and is interactive in essence. Thus, a letter should be drafted on the basis of friendly and conversational style in place of the dull and stiff style.

(ii) You’ attitude: The most effective business letters are those that show the writer’s interest in the receiver. It means, therefore, that one cultivates the habit of viewing things from the point of the reader/receiver of letters.

(iii)  Persuasion: Persuasion is the main function of business communication, and nothing persuades more effectively then a well written letter. Persuasive letters are written in a variety of circumstances and for a variety of reasons.

(iv) Positive Language: As far as possible positive language should be used in business letters. Negative words like, damage, failure, refuse etc. should be avoided in any case.

(v) Care for culture: One has to be especially careful in choice of words so as not to offend the receiver who may be having a different cultural background. The best way is to avoid use of cultural derived words, idioms and phrases.

2012 – June [4] (b) What are the barriers to communication? How do they

hamper communication?                                                                                            (5 marks)


Barriers to Communication

There are certain impediments which hamper communication. They are

called barriers to communication. The barriers act as walls and distract the


sender and receiver of the message.

Barriers can be physical, mental & emotional and linguistic.

  • Physical barriers: These barriers are practical barriers like excess heat or cold, distance between speaker and listener and lack of comfort in the communication arena.
  • Mental and emotional barriers: The speaker or listener may face ambiguity, make false assumptions or distort the meaning. These are related to individuals in communication and affect their communication ability.
  • Linguistic barriers: These barriers are related to the language used in communication. The level of competency, mastery over the language vocabulary and accent affect communication. Communication is excellent when the level of competency of both communicators is the same.

The barriers hamper communication because the message is distorted and becomes faulty due to them. Thus, mis-understandings and wrong views are formed because of the barriers. The barriers also prolong communication.

2018 – May [8] (a) Define visual communication:                                                      (2 marks)


Visual Communication: Visual communication through visual aids such as signs, typography, drawing, graphic designs, illustration, color and other electronic resources usually reinforces written communication. Visuals like graph, pie chart and other diagramatic presentations convey clearly a great deal of information.

2018 – May [9] (a) Write any four barriers to effective communication?

  • (2 marks)


Barriers to effective communication are:

  1. Physical Barriers
  2. language Barriers
  3. Attitude Barriers
  4. Technology Barriers.

-2018 – May [10] (a) (i) What are the characteristics of effective communication?   (2 marks)


The characteristics of effective communication:

  1. Clear
  2. Concise
  3. Complete
  4. Coherent 2018 – May [10] (a) (ii) What is diagonal communication? (2 marks)


Diagonal Communication: Cross functional communication between employees at different levels of the organizational hierarchy is described as diagonal communication e.g. A junior engineer reports directly to the general manager regarding the process on the project.

2018 – May [11] (a) What are the main steps in the process of communication?     (2 marks)


  1. The purpose or reason for the communication.
  2. The contents of the message.
  3. The medium used for conveying the message.
  4. Transiting the message.
  5. Message are often misinterpreted due to external disturbances such as noise created by humans.
  6. Receiving the message.
  7. Deciphering and making sense of the message.
  8. Interpreting and figuring out what the receiver thinks is the real message.

2018 – Nov [8] (a) Describe the term “paralanguage”, a mode of communication.   (2 marks)


Paralanguage: Paralanguage is a component of meta-communication that may modify meaning, give nuanced meaning, or convey emotion, such as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation, etc.

2018 – Nov [9] (a) (i) Discuss “Cultural barrier” in communication.

(2 marks)


(ii) What do you mean by (A) Vertical and (B) Horizontal formal communication?   (2 marks)


(i) “Culture Barriers”: The existence of cultural differences between people from various countries, regions tribes and religions, where words and symbols may be interpreted differently can result in miscommunications and culture barriers.

Ex: If a Chinese living in Canada, the most significant cultural barrier would be language, if he doesn’t know how to speak English or French.



(ii) (a) Vertical Formal Communication: Vertica’ communication is the communication where information and message flows between the ‘Superiors and Subordinates’ of the organisation.

(b) Horizontal Formal Communication: Horizontal Communication is the transmission of information between people, divisions, departments or units within the ‘same level f organisational hierarchy.

2018 – Nov [10] (a) How do Technology barriers effects communication? Explain. (2 marks)


Technology Barriers: Today there will hardly be anyone who does not use Technology for communication (i.e. emails, social media).

  • Where technology promotes multitasking, on other hand the information overload and trying to accomplish too many things together can result in gap in communication and lead to mis-communication.
  • Although advancement in fechnology have increased the productivity but also waste time of people by making them busy.

2018 – Nov [11] (a) Non-verbal is also one of the Broad Categories of Communication? Explain. ‘ (2 marks)


Non-Verbal Communication: Non-Verbal communication between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless indication or gesture. It includes the use of visual cues such as body language, distance and physical appearance etc. It may be divided into following types:

  1. Physical NVC: Facial expressions, gestures, tune of voice, touch, posture, eye gaze etc.
  2. Aesthetic NVC: Communication by means of aesthetic (i.e. cinema) to influence cultural and social development.

3.. Paralanguage : The way you say something, more than the actual words used, reveal the intent of message (i.e. hmm, nodge etc.)

  1. Appearance : A well dressed and groomed personality.

2019 – June [8] (a) Define Vertical & Chain Network under network in communication? (2 marks)


A communication network is a method used by organizational members to pass on information to other employees. These managers create various types of communication flows.

Most commonly used networks are –

1 Vertical Network – It is a formal network between a higher ranking employee and a subordinate. In this two – way communication, immediate feedback is possible.

  1. ’ Chain Network – In this communication network, the chain of command flow from senior to junior. This network often takes up time and communication may not be clear.

2019 – June [9] (a) (i) Discuss the “Gender Barrier” in communication.

(2 marks)


The barrier in communication: There are multiple barriers in the communication process. These barriers result in desertions and misunderstanding of the intended communique. One such barrier is the Gender Barrier.

Men and women communicate differently the reason for this lies in the wining of a man’s and women’s brains. Men talk in a linear, logical and compartmentalized manner whereas women we both logic and emotion. This may be the cause of communication problems in an office where both men and women work side by side. Men can be held guilty of providing insufficient information while women may be blamed for providing such information.

2019′ June [9] (Or) (a) (ii) What do you mean by Informal Communication?

(2 marks)


Informal communication is casual friendly and unofficial communication. It is spontaneous conversation and exchange of information between two or more persons without conforming to the prescribed official rules processes, systems, formalities and chain of command.

2019 – June [10] (a) “The listener has to be objective, practical and control his emotions”. Explain with reference to the importance of listening in communication?                                                            (2 marks)


Good communication is an art that has to be developed and honed. Several aspects must be kept in mind while communicating with others for conveying of the intended message.

Listening for Understanding: We are bombarded by noise and sound in all our waking hours. We hear conversations, news, gossip and many other forms of speech. However, most of it has not listened carefully and therefore misunderstood or partially understood. A good listener not only listens to the spoken words but observes carefully the nonverbal cues to understand the complete message. The listener has to objective practical and in control of his emotions.

2019 – June [11] (a) Define the importance of Paralanguage in Non-Verbal Communication. (2 marks)


Non-verbal communication is the process of communication by sending and receiving wordless messages.

Para language: The way you something, more than the actual words used reveal the intent of the message. The voice quality, intonation, pitch, stress, emotion, tone, and style of speaking, communicates approval, interest or the lack of it. Research estimates that the tone of the voice accounts for 38 percent of all communication.

*This article contains all topics about Communication- BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTING

For notes on all CA foundation topics, you can visit this article CA foundation note

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