class 12 economics syllabus – complete details
class 12 economics syllabus – complete details:-Economics is one of the social sciences, which has great influence on every human being. As economic life and the economy go through changes, the need to ground education becomes essential. While doing so, it is imperative to provide them opportunities to acquire analytical skills to observe and understand the economic realities.Visit cakart.in downloads section class 12 economics syllabus
At senior secondary stage, the learners are in a position to understand abstract ideas, exercise the power of thinking and to develop their own perception. It is at this stage, the learners are exposed to the rigour of the discipline of economics in a systematic way.
The economics courses are introduced in such a way that in the initial stage, the learners are introduced to the economic realities that the nation is facing today along with some basic statistical tools to understand these broader economic realities. In the later stage, the learners are introduced to economics as a theory of abstraction.
The economics courses also contain many projects and activities. These will provide opportunities for the learners to explore various economic issues both from their day-to-day life and also from issues, which are broader and invisible in nature. The academic skills that they learn in these courses would help to develop the projects and activities. The syllabus is also expected to provide opportunities to use information and communication technologies to facilitate their learning process.
class 12 economics syllabus – complete details
class 12 economics syllabus :-Course Structure
|Part A: Introductory Microeconomics|
|Consumer Equilibrium and Demand||16|
|Producer Behaviour and Supply||16|
|Forms of Market and Price Determination||12|
|Part B: Introductory Macroeconomics|
|National Income and Related Aggregates||15|
|Money and Banking||8|
|Determination of Income and Employment||12|
|Government Budget and the Economy||8|
|Balance of Payments||7|
class 12 economics syllabus :-Part A: Introductory Microeconomics
Unit 1: Introduction
Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics
What is an economy? Central problems of an economy : what, how and for whom to produce; concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.
Unit 2: Consumer Equilibrium and Demand
Consumer’s equilibrium – meaning of utility, marginal utility, law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer’s equilibrium using marginal utility analysis.
Indifference curve analysis of consumer’s equilibrium-the consumer’s budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer’s equilibrium.
Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve and its slope, movement along and shifts in the demand curve; price elasticity of demand – factors affecting price elasticity of demand; measurenment of price elasticity of demand – (a) percentage-change method and (b) geometric method (linear demand curve); relationship between price elasticity of demand and total expenditure.
Unit 3: Producer Behaviour and Supply
Production function – Short-Run and Long-Run
Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product.
Returns to a Factor.
Cost and Revenue: Short run costs – total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost; Average fixed cost, average variable cost and marginal cost-meaning and their relationship.
Revenue – total, average and marginal revenue – meaning and their relationship.
Producer’s equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost.
Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve and its slope, movements along and shifts in supply curve, price elasticity of supply; measurement of price elasticity of supply – (a) percentagechange method and (b) geometric method.
Unit 4: Forms of Market and Price Determination
Perfect competition – Features; Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply.
Other Market Forms – monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly – their meaning and features.
Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.
class 12 economics syllabus :-Part B: Introductory Macroeconomics
Unit 5: National Income and related aggregates
Some basic concepts: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
Circular flow of income; Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross and Net Domestic Product (GDP and NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; National Disposable Income (gross and net), Private Income, Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income; Real and Nominal GDP.
GDP and Welfare
Unit 6: Money and Banking
Money – its meaning and functions.
Supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank, Controller of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.
Unit 7: Determination of Income and Employment
Aggregate demand and its components. Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
Short–run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – change in government spending, taxes and money supply.
Unit 8: Government Budget and the Economy
Government budget – meaning, objectives and components.
Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
Measures of government deficit – revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.
Unit 9: Balance of Payments
Balance of payments account – meaning and components; balance of payments deficit-meaning.
Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
Determination of exchange rate in a free market.