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 CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work:  We provide complete details of CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work in this article.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

The subject Business studies provide students with a sound understanding of the principles in the business and as well as their relationship with the

society. The CBSC has introduced project work in the syllabus for class XI and XII. These project work expose the students to live beyond textbooks and give them the opportunity to explore problems.

class 12 commerce projects

class 12 commerce projects

class 12 commerce projects

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On completion of the project work, each student gets practical knowledge on the use of modern technologies, good exposure in the working environment,
  • practical knowledge on the use of modern technologies.
  • good exposure in the working environment.
  • develop important skills like teamwork, problem-solving, time management etc.
  • bring out the best of their capability while working independently.


CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

A student is supposed to select two units out of four and are required to make one project for each unit. Teachers will be there to help and guide through the process of selecting the topic and also closely supervise the process of the project. The teacher must ensure that each student go through the process rather than depending on readymade work in the market. The student should make one presentation before the class.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

Project one: Elements of business environment

  • Changes witnessed over the last few year on the mode of packing and its economic impact.
  • The reason behind the changes in Coco Cola and Fanta in the seventies to Thums up and campa cola in the eighties to Pepsi and Coke in nineties.
  • Changing roles of women in the past 25 years.
  • The changes in pattern of import and export
  • The trend in the changing interest rates and their effect on saving.
  • A study on child labor laws, its implementation, and effects.
  • The state of “anti-plastic campaign’ the law, its effect, and implementation.
  • The law of mining/ setting up industries
  • Social factors affecting acceptance and rejection of an identified product.
  • What has the effect of change in environment on the type of goods and services?

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

PROJECT TWO: Principles of Management

The student has to visit any one of the following:

  •  A departmental store.
  •  An industrial unit
  • A fast food outlet.
  • Any other organization

The students are required to observe the application of the general Principles of management advocated by Fayol.

Fayol’s principles

  1.  Division of work.
  2.  Unity of command.
  3.  Unity of direction.
  4.  Scalar chain.
  5.  Espirit de corps
  6.  Fair remuneration to all.
  7.  Order
  8.  Equity
  9.  Discipline.
  10.  Subordination of individual interest to general interest.
  11.  Initiative.
  12.  Centralization and decentralization.
  13.  Stability of tender.

(or)

Students may enquire into the application of scientific management techniques by F.W.Taylor in the unit visited.

  • Functional foremanship.
  • Standardisation and simplification of work
  • Method study.
  • Motion study.
  • Time study.
  • Fatigue study.
  •  Differential piece rate plan.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

PROJECT THREE: Stock exchange

This project helps the student to understand the values of investing and utilizing the stock market and also learn the important lessons about the economy, mathematics, and financial responsibility.  this project will also guide the students and provide them with the supplies to successfully monitor stock market trends and will teach students how to calculate profit and loss on the stock. the students are required to report the price of the stocks on daily basis and present it diagrammatically on the graph paper.

The project work will enable the student to :

  •   understand topic like sources of business finance and capital market.
  • understand the concepts used in stock exchange
  • inculcate the habit of watching business channels, reading business journals/ newspapers and seeking information from their elders.

The students are expected to find the value of their investments and accordingly rearrange their portfolio. The project work should cover the following aspects

  1.  Graphical presentation of the share prices of different companies on different dates.
  2.  Change in market value of shares due to change of seasons, festivals, natural and human disasters,
  3.  Change in market value of share due to change in political environment/ policies of various countries/ crisis in developed countries or other reasons.
  4.  Identify the top ten companies out of the 25 selected on the nasis of  their market value of shares.It does not matter if they have made profit or losses.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

PROJECT FOUR: Marketing

Students are required to identify a product/ service which they may like to manufacture/ provide (per consumption). The identified product should not be items discouraged by the society of government. During this project, the students will realize the importance of the concept of the marketing mix and the necessary decision regarding the four P’s of marketing.

  •  Product
  • Place
  • Price
  • Promotion

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

Preparing for XI & XII Commerce? - Must read below
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Presentation and submission of Project report:

Each student have to prepare and submit his/her project report. The following details are to be fullfilled for the preparation and submission.

  1.  The total length of the project must be of 25 to 30 pages.
  2. The project must be hand written.
  3. The project must be presented in a neat folder.
  4. The project report must be developed in the following sequence-
  •  Cover page include  the title of the project, student information, school and year
  •  List of contents.
  •  Acknowledgments and Preface
  •  Introduction
  • Topic with suitable heading.
  • Planning and activities done during the project
  • Observation and findings of the visit.
  • Conclusion
  • Photographs
  • Appendix
  • Teacher’s observation
  • Signatures of the teachers
  • At the completion of  the evaluation of the project, it should be punched in the center so that the report may not be reused but us available for reference only.
  • The project will be returned after evaluation.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

ASSESSMENT

Allocation of mark = 10 (for each project)

The mark will be allocated under the following heads:

1` Initiative, cooperativeness and participation  1 mark
2  Creativity in presentation 1 mark
3  Content, observation and research work  2 mark
4  Analysis of situation  2 mark
5 Viva 4 mark
Total  10 mark

The detailed information on the project work for business studied can be downloaded from here.

Karnataka class 12 commerce maths study material:

  • Time management is more important.
  • Firstly do not ignore your health.
  • Get proper sleep and eat a balanced nutritious diet.
  • A good relaxed mind and healthy food is important for you to retain what you study.
  • Besides know your strengths and weaknesses. Give more time to your weaker subjects but also take care that you do not ignore any subject altogether because a piled up syllabus in even one subject might bring down your percentage.
  • Do not try to spend hours in front of books if you are not retaining what you study.Plan to study such that you do not study for long stretches and get enough break every hour or two.
  • Also be positive and optimistic about scoring well. A happier you will be a more successful you.

Karnataka class 12 commerce maths study material:

Mathematics Paper Analysis.

Part A – This part comprised one mark questions, mostly formulae and simple calculations. There were totally ten questions.
Part B – This is a little tedious section comprising 14 two marks questions with a choice to answer any ten. Each question carried two marks.

Part C – Part C is the toughest in the paper. Ten to attend of any three marks questions in this section.

Part D – Students has the option to write any six out of the ten given questions. This is the section that is a breather for students after the tricky part c.

Part E – This is the last part that carried ten marks. Only two questions were given with a choice to answer any one.

Karnataka class 12 commerce maths study material:

Preparing for XI & XII Commerce? - Must read below
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Exam Structure

Unit Topic Marks
I. Relations and Functions 10
II. Algebra 13
III. Calculus 44
IV. Vectors and 3-D Geometry 17
V. Linear Programming 06
VI. Probability 10
Total 100

Unit I: Relations and Functions

1. Relations and Functions

Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.

2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

Unit II: Algebra

1. Matrices

Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

2. Determinants

Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Unit III: Calculus

1. Continuity and Differentiability

Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.

Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.

2. Applications of Derivatives

Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).

3. Integrals

Integration as inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.

syllabus 12 maths integrals

Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic propertiesof definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.

4. Applications of the Integrals

Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).

5. Differential Equations

Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:

dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.

dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.

Unit IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry

1. Vectors

Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.

2. Three – dimensional Geometry

Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines.Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.Distance of a point from a plane.

Unit V: Linear Programming

1. Linear Programming

Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

Unit VI: Probability

1. Probability

Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability. independent events, total probability, Baye’s theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Projects Work

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