Class 12 commerce ncert solutions
Class 12 commerce ncert solutions:- we provide class 12 commerce ncert solutions including Accountancy, Business Studies and Economics in this articles.
Class 12 commerce ncert solutions
class 12 commerce ncert solutions:-NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Accountancy
class 12 commerce ncert solutions:-Accountancy : Company Accounts and Analysis of Financial Statements
Q1 : What is public company?
Answer :A public company is defined as a company that offers a part of its ownership in the form of shares, debentures, bonds, securities to the general public through stock market. There must be atleast seven members to form a public company. As per the section 3 (1) (iv) of Companies Act 1956, public company means a company which:
a) is not a private company,
b) has a minimum paid up capital of Rs 5,00,000 or such higher paid up capital, as may be prescribed,
c) is a private company, being a subsidiary of a company which is not a private company.
A public company should not be mistakenly understood as a publicly-owned company, as the latter is exclusively owned and controlled by the government. A public company issues its share to general public without any restriction on maximum number of persons. A public company can be segmented into two types:
1. Listed Company– A Company whose shares are listed and traded in the stock exchange like, Tata Motors, Reliance, etc.
2. Unlisted Company– A Company whose shares are not listed in the stock exchange and thereby these shares cannot be traded in the stock exchange.
Q2 : What is meant by the word ‘Company’? Describe its characteristics.
Answer :The Section 3 (1) (i) of the Company Act of 1956 defines an organisation as a company that is formed and registered under the Act or any existing company that is formed and registered under any earlier company laws. In general, a company is an artificial person, created by law that has a separate legal entity, perpetual succession, common seal and has limited liability. It is a voluntary association of person who together contributes in the capital of the company to do business. Generally, the capital of a company is divided into small parts known as shares, the ownership of which is transferable subject to certain terms and conditions. There are two types of company, public company and private company.
Characteristics of Company
1. Association of Person: A company is formed voluntarily by a group of persons to perform a common business. Minimum number of person should be two for formation of a private company and seven for a public company.
2. Artificial Person: Company is an artificial and juristic person that is created by law.
3. Separate Legal Entity: A company has a separate legal entity from its members (shareholders) and Directors. It can open a bank account, sign a contract and can own a property in its own name.
4. Limited Liability: The liability of the members of a company is limited up to the nominal value or the face value of the shares. Unlike a partnership firm, on insolvency of a company, the members and the shareholders are not liable to pay the amount due to the creditors of the company. In fact, the members and the shareholders are only liable to pay the unpaid amount of the shares held by them. For example, if the value of share is Rs 10 and Rs 6 is paid up, then the member is liable to pay only Rs 4.
5. Perpetual Existence: The existence of company is not affected by the death, retirement, and insolvency of its members. That is, the life of a company remains unaffected by the life and the tenure of its members in the company. The life of a company is infinite until it is properly wound up as per the Company Act.
6. Common Seal: The Company is an artificial person and has no physical existence; hence it cannot put its signature. Thus, the Common Seal acts as an official signature of a company that validates the official documents.
7. Transferability of Shares: The shares of public limited company is easily and freely transferable without any consent from other members. But the share of ownership of a private limited company is not transferable without the consent of the other members.
Q3 : What do you mean by the term ‘share’? Discuss the type of shares, which can be issued under the Companies Act, 1956 as amended to date.
Answer :The total capital of a company is divided into equal units of small denomination termed as shares. The ownership of these shares is easily transferable, from one person to other, subject to certain conditions. The person who is contributing in the capital in the form of shares is known as shareholder. The ownership of a shareholder is limited to the value of the shares held by him/her.
Types of Shares
As per the Section 86 of the Company Act of 1956, there are two types of shares- Preference Shares and Equity Shares (also known as Ordinary Shares)
i) Preference Shares: Section 85 of the Company Act,1956 defines Preference Shares to be featured by the following rights:
a. Preference Shares entitle its holder the right to receive dividend at a fixed rate or fixed amount.
b. Preference Shares entitle its holder the preferential right to receive repayment of capital invested by them before their equity counterparts at the time of winding up of the company.
ii) Equity Shares: Equity Shareholders have a voting right and control the affairs of a company.
As per Section 85 (2) of Companies Act 1956; equity share is a share that is not a preference share. It does not possess any preferential right of payment of dividend or repayment of capital. The rate of dividend is not fixed on equity shares and varies from year to year, depending upon the amount of profit available for distribution after paying dividend to the preference shareholders.
class 12 commerce ncert solutions:-NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies
class 12 commerce ncert solutions:-Business Studies : Business Finance and Marketing
Q1 : What is meant by capital structure?
Answer :Capital structure refers to the combination of borrowed funds and owners’ fund that a firm uses for financing its fund requirements. Herein, borrowed funds comprise of loans, public deposits, debentures, etc. and owners’ fund comprise of preference share capital, equity share capital, retained earning etc. Generally, capital structure is simply referred as the combination of debt and equity that a firm uses for financing its funds. It is calculated as the ratio of debt and equity or the proportion of debt in the total capital used by the firm. Algebraically,
The proportion of the debt and equity used by the firm affects its financial risk and profitability. While on one hand, debt is a cheaper source of finance than equity and lowers the overall cost of capital but on the other hand, higher use of debt, increases the financial risk for the firm. Thus, the decision regarding the capital structure should be taken with utmost care. Capital structure is said to be optimal when the proportion of debt and equity used is such that the earnings per share increases.
Q2 : What is working capital? How is it calculated? Discuss five important determinants of working capital requirement.
Answer :Every business needs to take the decision regarding the investment in current assets i.e. the working capital. Current assets refer to the assets that are converted into cash or cash equivalents in a short period of time (less than or equal to one year). There are two broad concepts of working capital namely, Gross working capital and Net working capital.
Gross working capital (or, simply working capital) refers to the investment done in the current assets. Net working capital, on the other hand, refers to the amount of current assets that is in excess of current liabilities. Herein, current liabilities are those obligatory payments which are due for payment such as bills payable, outstanding expenses, creditors, etc. Net Working Capital is calculated as the difference of current assets over current liabilities. i.e.
NWC = Current Assets – Current Liabilities
The following are five determinants of working capital requirement.
i) Type of Business: Working capital requirement of a firm depends on its nature of business. An organisation that deals in services or trading will not require much of working capital. This is because such organisations involve small operating cycle and there is no processing done. Herein, the raw materials are the same as the outputs and the sales transaction takes place immediately. In contrast to this, a manufacturing firm involves large operating cycle and the raw materials need to be converted into finished goods before the final sale transaction takes place. Thereby, such firms require large working capital.
ii) Scale of Operations: Another factor determining the working capital requirement is the scale of operations in which the firm deals. If a firm operates on a big scale, the requirement of the working capital increases. This is because such firms would need to maintain high stock of inventory and debtors. In contrast to this, if the scale of operation is small, the requirement of the working capital will be less.
iii) Fluctuations in Business Cycle: Different phases of business cycle alter the working capital requirements by a firm. During boom period, the market flourishes and thereby, there is higher sale, higher production, higher stock and debtors. Thus, during this period the need for working capital increases. As against this, in a period of depression there is low demand, lesser production and sale, etc. Thus, the working capital requirement reduces.
iv) Production Cycle: The time period between the conversion of raw materials into finished goods is referred as production cycle. The span of production cycle is different for different firms depending on which the requirement of working capital is determined. If a firm has a longer span of production cycle, i.e. if there is a long time gap between the receipt of raw materials and their conversion into final finished goods, then there will be a high requirement of working capital due to inventories and related expenses. On the other hand, if the production cycle is short then requirement of working capital will be low.
v) Growth Prospects: Higher growth and expansion is related to higher production, more sales, more inputs, etc. Thus, companies with higher growth prospects require higher amount of working capital and vice versa.
Q3 : Discuss the two objective of Financial Planning.
Answer :Financial Planning involves designing the blueprint of the financial operations of a firm. It ensures that just the right amount of funds are available for the organisational operations at the right time. Thereby, it ensures smooth functioning. Taking into consideration the growth and performance, through financial planning, firms tend to forecast what amount of fund would be required at what time. The following are the two highlighted objectives of financial planning.
i) Ensure Availability of Funds
Ensuring that the right amount of funds are available at the right time is one of the main objectives of financial planning. It involves estimating the right amount of funds that are required for various business operations in the long term as well for day to day operations. In addition, it also involves estimating the time at which the funds would be required. Thus, financial planning ensures that right amount of funds are available at the right time. Financial planning also points out the probable sources of funds.
ii) Proper Utilisation of Funds
Financial Planning aims at full utilisation of funds. It ensures that both inadequate funds as well as excess funds are avoided. Inadequate funds hinders the smooth operations and the firm is unable to carry its commitments. On the other hand, excess funds add to the cost of business and encourage unnecessary wasteful expenditure. Thus, financial planning ensures that the funds are properly and optimally utilised.
class 12 commerce ncert solutions:-NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Economics
class 12 commerce ncert solutions:-Economics : Introductory Microeconomics
Q1 : Discuss the central problems of an economy.
Answer :Every economy faces three central problems due to scarce availability of resources. This scarcity challenges the best possible usage of these available resources to fulfil the unlimited demands. The three central problems of an economy are as follows:
- What to produce and in what quantities?
The very first problem encountered by any economy is to decide what goods are to be produced and in what quantities or amount. There is a lot to be decided; whether to produce consumer goods or luxury goods; agricultural goods or investment goods; whether to cater education and healthcare sector or to strengthen country’s military. An appropriate example was set by the Latin American nation Costa Rica; they dismantled their military in 1949 and invested the money, which earlier was spent on the maintenance of their army, on education and healthcare. Once it is decided, what to produce, the next decision is to estimate the amount or quantity of the production. So the economy constantly struggles to choose what to produce and in what quantities.
- How to produce?
The second problem that arrives is how to harvest the given or available resources? That is, what technique is to be used for producing various goods and services? It depends majorly on the nation’s endowment of resources in deciding the optimum technique. It has to be decided whether efficient production is possible through labour-intensive or capital-intensive techniques. This decision rest on the present economic conditions and also that the selected technique shall not only reduce the cost of production but also add to the social and economic welfare. For example, if a country is facing wide unemployment possibly due to huge population, then it is wise to opt for labour-intensive technique so that there is reduction in unemployment.
- For whom to produce?
Finally, the purposeful distribution of final goods and services produced (national income) has to be done; that is, who gets what and how much? The economy needs to decide the best suitable mechanism for distribution of the final products among different segments of the society. The objective behind selecting such mechanism is to reduce inequality of income, to reduce poverty and to add to the social welfare and standard of living of people.
Q2 : What do you mean by the production possibilities of an economy?
Answer :Production possibilities of an economy imply those numerous alternative combinations of goods and services, which a particular economy can produce, with the given technology and employing the available resources fully and efficiently. In other words, it refers to various feasible bundles of goods and services that can be produced together by efficiently utilising the given technology and available resources.
Q3 : What is a production possibility frontier?
Answer :The production possibility frontier (PPF) refers to a curve that shows various alternative combinations of two goods that can be produced with efficient utilisation of the given resources and technology. It is also called production possibility curve (PPC).
All the points lying on the PPC, that is curve AE, are associated with different quantities of good 1 and good 2 produced, by employing the available resources fully and in an efficient manner. While any point lying under the curve, like F, depicts inefficiency or underutilisation of available resources. Whereas any point lying outside the curve, like Z, depicts over utilisation of the available endowment of resources and technology; making it non-feasible.
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