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class 12 commerce ncert books

class 12 commerce ncert books

class 12 commerce ncert books:- we provide complete details of class 12 commerce ncert books in this article.

class 12 commerce ncert books

class 12 commerce ncert books

class 12 commerce ncert books : Accountancy 1

 Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
    1.1 Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-ProfitOrganisation
    1.2 Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
    1.3 Receipt and Payment Account
    1.4 Income and Expenditure Account
    1.5 Balance Sheet
    1.6 Some Peculiar Items
    1.7 Income and Expenditure Account based on Trial Balance
    1.8 Incidental Trading Activity
  • Chapter 2 Accounting for Partnership : Basic Concepts
    2.1 Nature of Partnership
    2.2 Partnership Deed
    2.3 Special Aspects of Partnership Accounts
    2.4 Maintenance of Capital Accounts of Partners
    2.5 Distribution of Profit among Partners
    2.6 Guarantee of Profit to a Partner
    2.7 Past Adjustments
    2.8 Final Accounts
  • Chapter 3 Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm – Admission of a Partner
    3.1 Modes of Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm
    3.2 Admission of a New Partner
    3.3 New Profit Sharing Ratio
    3.4 Sacrificing Ratio
    3.5 Goodwill
    3.6 Adjustment for Accumulated Profits and Losses
    3.7 Revaluation of Assets and Reassessment of Liabilities
    3.8 Adjustment of Capitals
    3.9 Change in Profit Sharing Ratio among the Existing Partners
  • Chapter 4 Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm – Retirement/Death of a Partner
    4.1 Ascertaining the Amount Due to Retiring/Deceased Partner
    4.2 New Profit Sharing Ratio
    4.3 Gaining Ratio
    4.4 Treatment of Goodwill
    4.5 Adjustment for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities
    4.6 Adjustment of Accumulated Profits and Losses
    4.7 Disposal of Amount Due to Retiring Partner
    4.8 Adjustment of Partner’s Capital
    4.9 Death of a Partner
  • Chapter 5 Dissolution of Partnership Firm
    5.1 Dissolution of Partnership
    5.2 Dissolution of a Firm
    5.3 Settlement of Accounts
    5.4 Accounting Treatment

class 12 commerce ncert books : Accountancy – II

CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Accounting for Share Capital
1.1 Features of a Company
1.2 Kinds of a Company
1.3 Share Capital of a Company
1.4 Nature and Classes of Shares
1.5 Issue of Shares
1.6 Accounting Treatment
1.7 Forfeiture of Shares
Chapter 2 Issue and Redemption of Debentures
2.1 Meaning of Debentures
2.2 Distinction between Shares and Debentures
2.3 Types of Debentures
2.4 Issue of Debentures
2.5 Over Subscription
2.6 Issue of Debentures for Consideration other than Cash
2.7 Issue of Debentures as a Collateral Security
2.8 Terms of Issue of Debentures
2.9 Interest on Debentures
2.10 Writing off Discount/Loss on Issue of Debentures
2.11 Redemption of Debentures
2.12 Redemption by Payment in Lump Sum
2.13 Redemption by Purchase in Open Market
2.14 Redemption by Conversion
2.15 Sinking Fund Method
Chapter 3 Financial Statements of a Company
3.1 Meaning of Financial Statements
3.2 Nature of Financial Statements
3.3 Objectives of Financial Statements
3.4 Types of Financial Statements
3.5 Form and Contents of Income Statement
3.6 Form and Contents of Balance Sheet
3.7 Some Peculiar Items
3.8 Uses and Importance of Financial Statements
3.9 Limitations of Financial Statements
Chapter 4 Analysis of Financial Statements
4.1 Meaning of Financial Analysis
4.2 Significance of Financial Analysis
4.3 Objectives of Financial Analysis
4.4 Tools of Financial Analysis
4.5 Comparative Statements
4.6 Common Size Statement
4.7 Trend Analysis
4.8 Limitations of Financial Analysis
Chapter 5 Accounting Ratios
5.1 Meaning of Accounting Ratios
5.2 Objectives of Ratio Analysis
5.3 Advantages of Ratio Analysis
5.4 Limitations of Ratio Analysis
5.5 Types of Ratios
5.6 Liquidity Ratios
5.7 Solvency Ratios
5.8 Activity (or Turnover) Ratios
5.9 Profitability Ratios
Chapter 6 Cash Flow Statement
6.1 Nature of Cash Flow Statement
6.2 Benefits of Cash Flow Statement
6.3 Cash and Cash Equivalents
6.4 Cash Flows
6.5 Classification of Activities for the Preparation of  Cash Flow Statement
6.6 Ascertaining Cash Flow from Operating Activities
6.7 Ascertainment of cash flow from investing and Financing Activities
6.8 Preparation of Cash Flow Statement

class 12 commerce ncert books: Economics – Microeconomics

Table of Contents

  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    1.1 A Simple Economy
    1.2 Central Problems of an Economy
    1.3 Organisation of Economic Activities
    1.3.1 The Centrally Planned Economy
    1.3.2 The Market Economy
    1.4 Positive and Normative Economics
    1.5 Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
    1.6 Plan of the Book
  • 2. THEORY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
    2.1 The Consumer’s Budget
    2.1.1 Budget Set
    2.1.2 Budget Line
    2.1.3 Changes in the Budget Set
    2.2 Preferences of the Consumer
    2.2.1 Monotonic Preferences
    2.2.2 Substitution between Goods
    2.2.3 Diminishing Rate of Substitution
    2.2.4 Indifference Curve
    2.2.5 Shape of the Indifference Curve
    2.2.6 Indifference Map
    2.2.7 Utility
    2.3 Optimal Choice of the Consumer
    2.4 Demand
    2.4.1 Demand Curve and the Law of Demand
    2.4.2 Normal and Inferior Goods
    2.4.3 Substitutes and Complements
    2.4.4 Shifts in the Demand Curve
    2.4.5 Movements along the Demand Curve and Shifts in the Demand Curve
    2.5 Market Demand
    2.6 Elasticity of Demand
    2.6.1 Elasticity along a Linear Demand Curve
    2.6.2 Factors Determining Price Elasticity of Demand for a Good
    2.6.3 Elasticity and Expenditure
  • 3. PRODUCTION AND COSTS
    3.1 Production Function
    3.2 The Short Run and the Long Run
    3.3 Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product
    3.3.1 Total Product
    3.3.2 Average Product
    3.3.3 Marginal Product
    3.4 The Law of Diminishing Marginal Product and the Law of Variable Proportions
    3.5 Shapes of Total Product, Marginal Product and Average Product Curves
    3.6 Returns to Scale
    3.7 Costs
    3.7.1 Short Run Costs
    3.7.2 Long Run Costs
  • 4. THE THEORY OF THE FIRM UNDER PERFECT COMPETITION
    4.1 Perfect competition: Defining Features
    4.2 Revenue
    4.3 Profit Maximisation
    4.3.1 Condition 1
    4.3.2 Condition 2
    4.3.3 Condition 3
    4.3.4 The Profit Maximisation Problem: Graphical Representation
    4.4 Supply Curve of a Firm
    4.4.1 Short Run Supply Curve of a Firm
    4.4.2 Long Run Supply Curve of a Firm
    4.4.3 The Shut Down Point
    4.4.4 The Normal Profit and Break-even Point
    4.5 Determinants of a Firm’s Supply Curve
    4.5.1 Technological Progress
    4.5.2 Input Prices
    4.5.3 Unit Tax
    4.6 Market Supply Curve
    4.7 Price Elasticity of Supply
    4.7.1 The Geometric Method
  • 5. MARKET EQUILIBRIUM
    5.1 Equilibrium, Excess Demand, Excess Supply
    5.1.1 Market Equilibrium: Fixed Number of Firms
    5.1.2 Market Equilibrium: Free Entry and Exit
    5.2 Applications
    5.2.1 Price Ceiling
    5.2.2 Price Floor
  • 6. NON-COMPETITIVE MARKETS
    6.1 Simple Monopoly in the Commodity Market
    6.1.1 Market Demand Curve is the Average Revenue Curve
    6.1.2 Total, Average and Marginal Revenues
    6.1.3 Marginal Revenue and Price Elasticity of Demand
    6.1.4 Short Run Equilibrium of the Monopoly Firm
    6.2 Other Non-perfectly Competitive Markets
    6.2.1 Monopolistic Competition
    6.2.2 How do Firms behave in Oligopoly?

class 12 commerce ncert books : Economics – Macroeconomics

Table of Contents

  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    1.1 Emergence of Macroeconomics
    1.2 Context of the Present Book of Macroeconomics
  • 2. NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTING
    2.1 Some Basic Concepts of Macroeconomics
    2.2 Circular Flow of Income and Methods of Calculating National Income
    2.2.1 The Product or Value Added Method
    2.2.2 Expenditure Method
    2.2.3 Income Method
    2.3 Some Macroeconomic Identities
    2.4 Goods and Prices
    2.5 GDP and Welfare
  • 3. MONEY AND BANKING
    3.1 Functions of Money
    3.2 Demand for Money
    3.2.1 The Transaction Motive
    3.2.2 The Speculative Motive
    3.3 The Supply of Money
    3.3.1 Legal Definitions: Narrow and Broad Money
    3.3.2 Money Creation by the Banking System
    3.3.3 Instruments of Monetary Policy and the Reserve Bank of India
  • 4. INCOME DETERMINATION
    4.1 Ex Ante and Ex Post
    4.2 Movement Along a Curve Versus Shift of a Curve
    4.3 The Short Run Fixed Price Analysis of the Product Market
    4.3.1 A Point on the Aggregate Demand Curve
    4.3.2 Effects of an Autonomous Change on Equilibrium Demand in the Product Market
    4.3.3 The Multiplier Mechanism
  • 5. THE GOVERNMENT: FUNCTIONS AND SCOPE
    5.1 Components of the Government Budget
    5.1.1 The Revenue Account
    5.1.2 The Capital Account
    5.1.3 Measures of Government Deficit
    5.2 Fiscal Policy
    5.2.1 Changes in Government Expenditure
    5.2.2 Changes in Taxes
    5.2.3 Debt
  • 6. OPEN ECONOMY MACROECONOMICS
    6.1 The Balance of Payments
    6.1.1 BoP Surplus and Deficit
    6.2 The Foreign Exchange Market
    6.2.1 Determination of the Exchange Rate
    6.2.2 Flexible Exchange Rates
    6.2.3 Fixed Exchange Rates
    6.2.4 Managed Floating
    6.2.5 Exchange Rate Management: The International Experience
    6.3 The Determination of Income in an Open Economy
    6.3.1 National Income Identity for an Open Economy
    6.3.2 Equilibrium Output and the Trade Balance
    6.4 Trade Deficits, Savings and Investment

class 12 commerce ncert books: Business Studies (Part -1)

Table of Contents

  • CHAPTER 1 : NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT
  • CHAPTER 2 : PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
  • CHAPTER 3 : BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
  • CHAPTER 4 : PLANNING
  • CHAPTER 5 : ORGANISING
  • CHAPTER 6 : STAFFING
  • CHAPTER 7 : DIRECTING
  • CHAPTER 8 : CONTROLLING

class 12 commerce ncert books: Business Studies (Part -2)

Table of Contents

  • CHAPTER 9: BUSINESS FINANCE
  • CHAPTER 10: FINANCIAL MARKETS
  • CHAPTER 11: MARKETING
  • CHAPTER 12: CONSUMER PROTECTION
  • CHAPTER 13: ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

class 12 commerce ncert books

class 12 commerce ncert books

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class 12 commerce ncert books

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