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class 11 commerce notes – complete details

class 11 commerce notes – complete details

Class 11 commerce notes – complete details:-CBSE class 11 commerce  includes subjects are Accountancy , Business Studies and Economics etc. We provide class 11 commerce notes – complete details in this articles

class 11 commerce notes

class 11 commerce notes – complete details

class 11 commerce notes:-Accountancy : Financial Accounting

class 11 commerce notes:-objectives of preparing financial statements

The following are the objectives of preparing financial statements.

1. To ascertain profit earned or loss incurred by a business during an accounting period. This is estimated by preparing Trading and Profit and Loss Account.

2. To ascertain the true financial position of a business. This is reflected by the Balance Sheet.

3. To enable comparison of current year’s performance with that of the previous year’s, i.e., intra-firm comparisons. Also, to compare own performance with that of the other firms in the same industry, i.e., inter-firm comparisons.

4. To assess the solvency and credit worthiness of the business

5. To provide various provisions and reserves to meet unforeseen future conditions and to toughen the financial position of the business

6. To provide vital information to facilitate various users of accounting information in decision making process.

purpose of preparing trading and profit and loss account

The purposes of preparing Trading Account are:

1. To calculate gross profit earned or gross loss incurred during an accounting period

2. To estimate the cost of goods sold

3. To record direct expenses (i.e., expenses incurred on the purchases and manufacturing of goods)

4. To measure the adequacy and reasonability of direct expenses incurred by comparing purchases with direct expenses incurred

5. To compare the realised efficiency and performance with the desired or proposed targets

The purposes of preparing Profit and Loss Account are:

1. To calculate net profit or net loss

2. To ascertain net profit ratio and to compare this year’s net profit ratio with that of the desired and proposed target in order to assess the efficiency and effectiveness

3. To measure the adequacy and reasonability of indirect expenses incurred by ascertaining ratio between indirect expenses and net profit

4. To compare current year’s actual performance with desired and planned performance

5. To provide various provisions and reserves to meet unforeseen future conditions and to toughen the financial position of the business

class 11 commerce notes:-Business Studies

parameters used to measure the size of the business

The following are the various parameters that are used to measure the size of a business.

(a) Number of people hired in the business

(b) Amount of capital invested in the business

(c) Volume or value or units of output produced by the business

(d) Power consumption by the business in carrying out its activities

What is the definition used by Government of India for small scale industries?

The Government of India classifies an industry as a small scale industry on the basis of the level of investment made in it. Industries where the amount invested in the fixed assets (particularly plant and machinery) is less than Rs. 1 crore are regarded as small-scale industries. However, export-oriented units that use modern production techniques are considered as small-scale industries if their investment does not exceed Rs. 5 crore.

How do small scale industries contribute to the socio-economic development of India

Small-scale industries (SSIs) play an important role in ensuring the progress of developing countries such as India. The following points highlight their contribution.

(a) Market share: SSIs make up 95 percent of the industrial units in India. They contribute about 40 percent of the ‘gross industrial value added’ and 45 percent of India’s total exports.

(b) Employment generation: As SSIs use labour-intensive production techniques, they have a greater employment generation potential than large industries. Moreover, the skills required to perform jobs in SSIs are usually not very specific, which further increases their scope for generating employment.

(c) Wide range of products: Small-scale units produce a large variety of consumer products, such as stationery items, safety matches, handicrafts, vegetables and processed food. Besides, SSIs also produce a few items by using technology, such as calculators, televisions and engineering goods.

(d) Regional balance: SSIs produce simple products and use basic technology. In addition, these industries do not require heavy capital investment, and therefore, they can be set up by anyone anywhere across a country. Small units not only benefit the particular region where it is established but also help reduce the regional disparities in industrial development among different regions of a country.

(e) Customised goods: Small industrial units adapt perfectly to specific needs of consumers. As SSIs use simple and highly flexible production techniques, they can provide their customers with goods best suited to the customers’ tastes and preferences.

Describe the role of small business in rural India.

The following are some of the major roles played by small-scale businesses in rural India.

(a) They generate employment opportunities: Cottage and rural industries play a significant role in providing employment opportunities, particularly to people in rural areas. This proves to be a boon especially for the economically weaker sections of the rural society.

(b) They mitigate disguised unemployment and alleviate poverty: Small-scale businesses use labour-intensive production techniques, and are, therefore, able to provide employment to the excess/surplus rural labour. Thus, small-scale businesses remove disguised unemployment from the agriculture sector and at the same time provide livelihood to the rural people. Hence, they contribute to alleviating rural poverty.

(c) They enable equitable income distribution: The capital requirements of small-scale businesses are low, mainly because of their use of labour-intensive production techniques, and this encourages entrepreneurs to start units on a small scale. Small-scale businesses are, therefore, set up all over the country, many of them providing employment opportunities to people in rural areas. This triggers the redistribution of wealth and income, and enables the equitable distribution of income in rural areas.

(d) They help accelerate growth: Small-scale businesses have been considered as a major propeller for the acceleration of economic growth and as an employment generator, particularly in the rural and backward areas of India.

(e) They facilitate rural development and reduce migration from rural to urban areas: It is well known that a large number of people migrate from rural to urban areas in search of better employment opportunities and improved living standards. Small-scale businesses help reduce this migration by providing employment opportunities to rural people in their own regions. By doing so, small units also help mitigate the excessive pressure on urban infrastructure.

class 11 commerce notes:-Economics : Indian Economic Development

Why is calorie-based norm not adequate to identify the poor?

The calorie-based norm is not adequate to identify the poor because of the following reasons:

a) This mechanism does not differentiate a very poor from other poor. It categorises them into one category that is, ‘poor’. Consequently, it indicates whole class of poor and not, especially, those poor who are the most needy.

b) This mechanism uses inappropriate proxies for income like Monthly Per Capita Expenditure (MPCE), etc. These items do not act as suitable and appropriate proxies for income to measure calorie requirements.

c) This mechanism does not consider various important factors that are associated with poverty. These factors are health care, clean drinking water, proper sanitation and basic education. Mere estimation of calorie intake does not reflect the true economic condition of an individual.

d) Another shortcoming of calorie-based norm is that it fails to account for social factors that exaggerate and worsen poverty like ill health, lack of access to resources, lack of civil and political freedom, etc.

Therefore, because of these shortcomings in the calorie-based norm, it cannot be used to identify the poor.

What is meant by ‘Food for Work’ programme?

Food for Work (FFW) programme was started in 2000-01 with the objective of generating ample employment opportunities for unskilled labourers concentrated in the drought-affected states of Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, M.P, Orissa, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Uttaranchal. This programme provides food in exchange of work done by labourers. This programme was aimed to protect poor people against reduction in their purchasing power capacity in the natural calamities prone areas. The work done by the labourers includes watershed development works, water harvesting and construction of metal roads connecting rural and urban areas. This programme not only provides labourers with food but also creates semi-durable assets that facilitate economic and social development of the backward areas.

Why are employment generation programmes important in poverty alleviation in India? 

The importance of employment generation programmes in poverty alleviation efforts in India are as follows:-

(i) Direct Relationship between Employment and Poverty Alleviation

There exists a positive relationship between employment and poverty alleviation. If government aims at creating new employment opportunities, then more people will be employed that will raise their income and, thus, will pull them above the poverty line.

(ii) Higher Standard of Living

With the increase in income, consequent to the new employment opportunities, poverty trodden people can enjoy higher standard of living and greater accessibility to education, better health facilities, proper sanitation, etc.

(iii) Reduce Rural-Urban Migration

Poor people tend to migrate from rural to urban areas in sought of better employment and earning opportunities. This creates undue burden on the urban areas to provide ample job opportunities to these migrants. Failure of this leads to formation of informal sector that makes these people more vulnerable in the urban areas. A positive point of employment generation programmes is that it generates ample employment opportunities in rural areas so as to reduce rural-urban migration.

(iv) Creation of Durable Assets

The employment generation programmes aim at creation of durable assets like watershed development works, water harvesting, irrigation facilities, canal building, construction of roads connecting rural areas to urban areas and construction of dams. All these assets play an important role in the social and economic development of the country.

(v) Self-sufficiency and Self-reliant Areas

The creation of these durable assets protects the poverty-trodden areas from natural calamities such as floods and droughts thereby facilitating these areas to be self-sufficient and self reliant.

(vi) Impart and Enhance Skills

Most of the employment generation programmes help in human capital formation by enhancing knowledge and imparting skills to the unskilled labourers. Such skills increase the employment prospect of the unskilled labourers in the industrial and the service sectors. This not only enhances income earning capacities of these people but also alleviates poverty simultaneously.

(vii) Reduce underemployment and disguised unemployment

Indian agricultural sector is characterised by disguised unemployment. This implies that although a labourer is engaged in agriculture but the total output won’t be affected even if the labourer is withdrawn. The role of employment generation programmes in reducing disguised unemployment is very important. These programmes engage these extra labourers in economically fruitful activities, thereby, reducing unnecessary burden on the agricultural sector.

 How can creation of income earning assets address the problem of poverty?

The income earning assets are those assets the ownership of which are controlled and owned by the members of a household. These are land, capital, labour and different levels of skills. Poverty and inequality of income arises due to improper distribution of and access to such income-earning assets. The labour skills of the poverty-trodden population are usually traditional and poor in quality that consequently leads to poor income and employment opportunities. Moreover, a substantial proportion of population is engaged in the small scale production that often lacks capital and modern technology. Consequently, such techniques directly hamper the income earning capabilities of small scale industries. In addition to this, poor people often lack access to social services like proper medical and health care facilities, better education, proper sanitation, etc. The lack of access to such social services affects health, productivity and finally income earning capabilities of the poor.

In order to alleviate the problem of poverty, the role of income earning assets cannot be substituted. There are various measures that can create income earning assets for the poor people like providing proper access to easy credit, capital, monetary assistance, imparting technical skills, allotment of land to the landless and marginal farmers and better access to education, health services along with better access to information and support services for increasing their productivity. All these measures directly or indirectly contribute positively to the quality of human capital and their endowment of income-earning assets. This in turn leads to increase in the income opportunities and earning capabilities, thereby, contributing to the alleviation of poverty.

class 11 commerce notes

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class 11 commerce notes

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