CIMA Operational level Managing the finance function
CIMA Operational level Managing the finance function: Meaning of Financial Management
Financial Management means planning, organizing, directing and controlling the financial activities such as procurement and utilisation of funds of the enterprise. It means applying general management principles to financial resources of the enterprise.
CIMA Operational level Managing the finance function: Scope/Elements
- Investment decisions includes investment in fixed assets (called as capital budgeting). Investment in current assets are also a part of investment decisions called as working capital decisions.
- Financial decisions – They relate to the raising of finance from various resources which will depend upon decision on type of source, period of financing, cost of financing and the returns thereby.
- Dividend decision – The finance manager has to take decision with regards to the net profit distribution. Net profits are generally divided into two:
- Dividend for shareholders- Dividend and the rate of it has to be decided.
- Retained profits- Amount of retained profits has to be finalized which will depend upon expansion and diversification plans of the enterprise.
CIMA Operational level Managing the finance function: Objectives of Financial Management
The financial management is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of a concern. The objectives can be-
- To ensure regular and adequate supply of funds to the concern.
- To ensure adequate returns to the shareholders which will depend upon the earning capacity, market price of the share, expectations of the shareholders.
- To ensure optimum funds utilization. Once the funds are procured, they should be utilized in maximum possible way at least cost.
- To ensure safety on investment, i.e, funds should be invested in safe ventures so that adequate rate of return can be achieved.
- To plan a sound capital structure-There should be sound and fair composition of capital so that a balance is maintained between debt and equity capital.
CIMA Operational level Managing the finance function: Functions of Financial Management
- Estimation of capital requirements: A finance manager has to make estimation with regards to capital requirements of the company. This will depend upon expected costs and profits and future programmes and policies of a concern. Estimations have to be made in an adequate manner which increases earning capacity of enterprise.
- Determination of capital composition: Once the estimation have been made, the capital structure have to be decided. This involves short- term and long- term debt equity analysis. This will depend upon the proportion of equity capital a company is possessing and additional funds which have to be raised from outside parties.
- Choice of sources of funds: For additional funds to be procured, a company has many choices like-
- Issue of shares and debentures
- Loans to be taken from banks and financial institutions
- Public deposits to be drawn like in form of bonds.
Choice of factor will depend on relative merits and demerits of each source and period of financing.
- Investment of funds: The finance manager has to decide to allocate funds into profitable ventures so that there is safety on investment and regular returns is possible.
- Disposal of surplus: The net profits decision have to be made by the finance manager. This can be done in two ways:
- Dividend declaration – It includes identifying the rate of dividends and other benefits like bonus.
- Retained profits – The volume has to be decided which will depend upon expansional, innovational, diversification plans of the company.
- Management of cash: Finance manager has to make decisions with regards to cash management. Cash is required for many purposes like payment of wages and salaries, payment of electricity and water bills, payment to creditors, meeting current liabilities, maintainance of enough stock, purchase of raw materials, etc.
- Financial controls: The finance manager has not only to plan, procure and utilize the funds but he also has to exercise control over finances. This can be done through many techniques like ratio analysis, financial forecasting, cost and profit control, etc.
CIMA Operational level Managing the finance function: History and Services
CIMA Operational level Managing the finance function: The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) is a UK based professional body offering training and qualification in management accountancy and related subjects. It is focused on accountants working in industry, and provides ongoing support and training for members.
CIMA is one of the professional associations for accountants in the UK and Ireland. Its particular emphasis is on developing the management accounting profession. CIMA is the largest management accounting body in the world with more than 227,000 members and students in 179 countries. CIMA is also a member of the International Federation of Accountants.
CIMA operates a standard scheme of qualifying examinations for prospective members. It promotes local education, training and management development operations, and new techniques through its research foundation and the dissemination of management accounting practices through publications and other media related activities. CIMA has been active in recent educational and vocational initiatives in former Eastern bloc countries. It publishes a monthly journal, supplied free to members and registered students, called ‘Financial Management’.
CIMA is recognised as a professional accounting body for various statutory purposes by UK and various overseas governments. The institute regulates the activities of its members by a code of practice, a discipline committee and (a recent innovation) a continuing education scheme. Its governing body is its council, comprising members elected from regional branches. Each of the branches has a committee and is responsible for much of the ‘grass roots’ activity. Activity such as qualification development is undertaken from the London head office.
The CIMA Global Business Challenge, an annual international business and strategic management competition for undergraduates around the world, is designed to bring out the best in the young business leaders of tomorrow.
In July 2009, CIMA added an online community – CIMAsphere – to its website. The community consisted of a range of blogs, discussion boards, groups, community answers, expert Q&A sessions and some social networking features for members, students and the general public. This has since been shut down. Members are instead encouraged to join the CIMA LinkedIn group, and students are directed to CIMAconnect, an online study support portal.
In 2011, CIMA entered into a joint venture with the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) to launch a global management accounting designation called the Chartered Global Management Accountant (CGMA).In the Americas outside the U.S., non-U.S. CPAs can obtain the new designation as an AICPA International Associate, after a rigorous assessment process. In the rest of the world, new designation holders are able to become members of CIMA after the same assessment process.
CIMA is proactive to tie up with American CPA because of the current convergence trend between US-GAAP and IFRS, reinforced following the merger of the iconic New York Stock Exchange with Germany’s Deutsche Boerse AG. “It remains to be seen whether companies listed in a combined exchange would be required to report under IFRS, US GAAP or both, but as the US appears to be moving towards IFRS adoption it is more likely the international standards would be the accounting rules of choice”.