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CIMA C03 Fundamentals of Business Mathematics Forecasting

CIMA C03 Fundamentals of Business Mathematics Forecasting

CIMA C03 Fundamentals of Business Mathematics Forecasting: Most people view the world as consisting of a large number of alternatives. Futures research evolved as a way of examining the alternative futures and identifying the most probable. Forecasting is designed to help decision making and planning in the present.

Forecasts empower people because their use implies that we can modify variables now to alter (or be prepared for) the future. A prediction is an invitation to introduce change into a system.

There are several assumptions about forecasting:

1. There is no way to state what the future will be with complete certainty. Regardless of the methods that we use there will always be an element of uncertainty until the forecast horizon has come to pass.

2. There will always be blind spots in forecasts. We cannot, for example, forecast completely new technologies for which there are no existing paradigms.

3. Providing forecasts to policy-makers will help them formulate social policy. The new social policy, in turn, will affect the future, thus changing the accuracy of the forecast.

Many scholars have proposed a variety of ways to categorize forecasting methodologies. The following classification is a modification of the schema developed by Gordon over two decades ago:

CIMA C03 Fundamentals of Business Mathematics Forecasting: Genius forecasting – This method is based on a combination of intuition, insight, and luck. Psychics and crystal ball readers are the most extreme case of genius forecasting. Their forecasts are based exclusively on intuition. Science fiction writers have sometimes described new technologies with uncanny accuracy.

There are many examples where men and women have been remarkable successful at predicting the future. There are also many examples of wrong forecasts. The weakness in genius forecasting is that its impossible to recognize a good forecast until the forecast has come to pass.

Some psychic individuals are capable of producing consistently accurate forecasts. Mainstream science generally ignores this fact because the implications are simply to difficult to accept. Our current understanding of reality is not adequate to explain this phenomena.

CIMA C03 Fundamentals of Business Mathematics Forecasting: Trend extrapolation – These methods examine trends and cycles in historical data, and then use mathematical techniques to extrapolate to the future. The assumption of all these techniques is that the forces responsible for creating the past, will continue to operate in the future. This is often a valid assumption when forecasting short term horizons, but it falls short when creating medium and long term forecasts. The further out we attempt to forecast, the less certain we become of the forecast.

The stability of the environment is the key factor in determining whether trend extrapolation is an appropriate forecasting model. The concept of “developmental inertia” embodies the idea that some items are more easily changed than others. Clothing styles is an example of an area that contains little inertia. It is difficult to produce reliable mathematical forecasts for clothing. Energy consumption, on the other hand, contains substantial inertia and mathematical techniques work well. The developmental inertia of new industries or new technology cannot be determined because there is not yet a history of data to draw from.

There are many mathematical models for forecasting trends and cycles. Choosing an appropriate model for a particular forecasting application depends on the historical data. The study of the historical data is called exploratory data analysis. Its purpose is to identify the trends and cycles in the data so that appropriate model can be chosen.

The most common mathematical models involve various forms of weighted smoothing methods. Another type of model is known as decomposition. This technique mathematically separates the historical data into trend, seasonal and random components. A process known as a “turning point analysis” is used to produce forecasts. ARIMA models such as adaptive filtering and Box-Jenkins analysis constitute a third class of mathematical model, while simple linear regression and curve fitting is a fourth.

The common feature of these mathematical models is that historical data is the only criteria for producing a forecast. One might think then, that if two people use the same model on the same data that the forecasts will also be the same, but this is not necessarily the case. Mathematical models involve smoothing constants, coefficients and other parameters that must decided by the forecaster. To a large degree, the choice of these parameters determines the forecast.

It is vogue today to diminish the value of mathematical extrapolation. Makridakis (one of the gurus of quantitative forecasting) correctly points out that judgmental forecasting is superior to mathematical models, however, there are many forecasting applications where computer generated forecasts are more feasible. For example, large manufacturing companies often forecast inventory levels for thousands of items each month. It would simply not be feasible to use judgmental forecasting in this kind of application.

CIMA C03 Fundamentals of Business Mathematics Forecasting: Consensus methods – Forecasting complex systems often involves seeking expert opinions from more than one person. Each is an expert in his own discipline, and it is through the synthesis of these opinions that a final forecast is obtained.

One method of arriving at a consensus forecast would be to put all the experts in a room and let them “argue it out”. This method falls short because the situation is often controlled by those individuals that have the best group interaction and persuasion skills.

A better method is known as the Delphi technique. This method seeks to rectify the problems of face-to-face confrontation in the group, so the responses and respondents remain anonymous. The classical technique proceeds in well-defined sequence. In the first round, the participants are asked to write their predictions. Their responses are collated and a copy is given to each of the participants. The participants are asked to comment on extreme views and to defend or modify their original opinion based on what the other participants have written. Again, the answers are collated and fed back to the participants. In the final round, participants are asked to reassess their original opinion in view of those presented by other participants.

The Delphi method general produces a rapid narrowing of opinions. It provides more accurate forecasts than group discussions. Furthermore, a face-to-face discussion following the application of the Delphi method generally degrades accuracy.

 

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