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# CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals

## CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals:- we provide complete details of CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals

### CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals:-Introduction

In geometry, we have learnt formulae to calculate areas
of various geometrical figures including triangles,
rectangles, trapezias and circles. Such formulae are
fundamental in the applications of mathematics to many
real life problems. The formulae of elementary geometry
allow us to calculate areas of many simple figures.
However, they are inadequate for calculating the areas
enclosed by curves. For that we shall need some concepts
of Integral Calculus.
In the previous chapter, we have studied to find the
area bounded by the curve y = f (x), the ordinates x = a,
x = b and x-axis, while calculating definite integral as the
limit of a sum. Here, in this chapter, we shall study a specific
application of integrals to find the area under simple curves,
area between lines and arcs of circles, parabolas and
ellipses (standard forms only). We shall also deal with finding
the area bounded by the above said curves.

### CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals:-Area under Simple Curves

In the previous chapter, we have studied
definite integral as the limit of a sum and
how to evaluate definite integral using
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Now,
we consider the easy and intuitive way of
finding the area bounded by the curve
y = f (x), x-axis and the ordinates x = a and
x = b. From Fig 8.1, we can think of area
under the curve as composed of large
number of very thin vertical strips. Consider
an arbitrary strip of height y and width dx,
then dA (area of the elementary strip)= ydx,
where, y = f (x).

This area is called the elementary area which is located at an arbitrary position
within the region which is specified by some value of x between a and b. We can think
of the total area A of the region between x-axis, ordinates x = a, x = b and the curve
y = f (x) as the result of adding up the elementary areas of thin strips across the region
PQRSP. Symbolically,

### CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals:-The area of the region bounded by a curve and a line

In this subsection, we will find the area of the region bounded by a line and a circle,
a line and a parabola, a line and an ellipse. Equations of above mentioned curves will be
in their standard forms only as the cases in other forms go beyond the scope of this
textbook.

### CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals:-Area between Two Curves

Intuitively, true in the sense of Leibnitz, integration is the act of calculating the area by
cutting the region into a large number of small strips of elementary area and then
adding up these elementary areas. Suppose we are given two curves represented by
y = f (x), y = g (x), where f (x) ≥ g(x) in [a, b] as shown in Fig 8.13. Here the points of
intersection of these two curves are given by x = a and x = b obtained by taking
common values of y from the given equation of two curves.

### CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals:-Historical Note

The origin of the Integral Calculus goes back to the early period of development
of Mathematics and it is related to the method of exhaustion developed by the
mathematicians of ancient Greece. This method arose in the solution of problems
on calculating areas of plane figures, surface areas and volumes of solid bodies
etc. In this sense, the method of exhaustion can be regarded as an early method
of integration. The greatest development of method of exhaustion in the early
period was obtained in the works of Eudoxus (440 B.C.) and Archimedes
(300 B.C.)
Systematic approach to the theory of Calculus began in the 17th century.
In 1665, Newton began his work on the Calculus described by him as the theory
of fluxions and used his theory in finding the tangent and radius of curvature at
any point on a curve. Newton introduced the basic notion of inverse function
called the anti derivative (indefinite integral) or the inverse method of tangents.
During 1684-86, Leibnitz published an article in the Acta Eruditorum
which he called Calculas summatorius, since it was connected with the summation
of a number of infinitely small areas, whose sum, he indicated by the symbol ‘∫’.
Calculus integrali. This corresponded to Newton’s inverse method of tangents.
Both Newton and Leibnitz adopted quite independent lines of approach which
was radically different. However, respective theories accomplished results that
were practically identical. Leibnitz used the notion of definite integral and what is
quite certain is that he first clearly appreciated tie up between the antiderivative
and the definite integral.
Conclusively, the fundamental concepts and theory of Integral Calculus
and primarily its relationships with Differential Calculus were developed in the
work of P.de Fermat, I. Newton and G. Leibnitz at the end of 17th century.

However, this justification by the concept of limit was only developed in the
works of A.L. Cauchy in the early 19th century. Lastly, it is worth mentioning the
following quotation by Lie Sophie’s:
“It may be said that the conceptions of differential quotient and integral which
in their origin certainly go back to Archimedes were introduced in Science by the
investigations of Kepler, Descartes, Cavalieri, Fermat and Wallis …. The discovery
that differentiation and integration are inverse operations belongs to Newton
and Leibnitz”.

### CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals

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### CBSE Class 12 Commerce Mathematics Applications of the Integrals

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