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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications : CBSE is a renowned educational Board, which comes under the Union Government of India. This eminent board was formed in 1952 and associated with the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana. Ajmer, Gwalior, Merwara and Central India were included in the administrative territory of this board along with the other places including Bhopal, Ajmer and Vindhya Pradesh. From 1952 onwards, it has been providing a standard education and robust learning environment to all. The Central Board of Secondary Education or CBSE is a prestigious board of education and it provides affiliation to public and private schools. Apart from this, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and kendriya vidyalayas are affiliated to this board.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications : Download CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Complete Information study material in PDF format. My  Team Members provides Here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Notes and CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Sample papers. The topics are given under following  this unit :

Front-end Interface – Introduction; content and features; identifying and using appropriate component(Text Box, Radio Button, CheckBox, List) for data entry, validation and display;

Back-end Database – Introduction and its purpose; exploring the requirement of tables and its essential attributes;

Front-End and Database Connectivity – Introduction, requirement and benefits Demonstration and development of appropriate Front-end interface and Back-end Database for e-Governance, e-Business and e-Learning applications

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Complete Information

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications : IT Applications is Local business-functional applications embedded in business processes, activities, products and/or services. Learn more in: Trends in Information Technology Governance . It is a Research and development work performed to create a situation-specific bridge between new or existing IT hardware and software technologies and the information needs/wants of a customer. The combination of proper hardware, software, and tailored application delivers a well-rounded IT solution for the customer’s problem. Learn more in: Building Police/Community Relations through Virtual Communities.

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Research IT Applications

Research Applications provide application services from innovation, grants and funding through to publication and exploitation. Our principal aims are to help accelerate the research lifecycle and facilitate collaboration through the provision of world-class research administration, research publication and collaborations systems.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications : Information technology (IT) is the application of computers to store, study, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data,[1] or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level “contain[s] some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications.

Download Here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Notes In PDF Format

Better Understanding of Interplay between IT Applications

Managing an IT application portfolio for your business is an essential step in maintaining business processes, and ensuring efficiency and quality. However, before you begin working on the management aspect of the portfolio, it is important to understand exactly how IT applications interact with databases and operating systems. As an established business, you may already know that programs, software, hardware and operating systems work in unison to bring results and execute functions. In the simplest terms, a program can be defined as a set of instructions, which is relayed through the operating system to the hardware.

Applications and the operating system

An operating system manages everything including memory, database, applications, devices, hardware, and software. In a nutshell, the average OS can be divided into hardware, device drivers, input/output management, applications, CPU management and memory management. Providing a stable platform for IT applications to work, operating systems build a bridge between software programming and hardware execution. It provides a consistent interface for applications, allowing you to write applications necessary to manage your business’ IT portfolio.

Applications and the database

A database is defined as a collection of data or information that is manually or automatically organized, updated, managed and accessed for business processes. A database server on the other hand is a program or application that allows computers to operate and manage this information. You can use a number of computer software programs to manage information, as well as IT applications on your database. These programs are available either commercially like Oracle and MSSQL or through open source i.e. MySQL, PostgresSQL or MongoDB. Database servers use many storage techniques called engines and work in different manners.

Interaction between hardware and software

The connection between the user, application, operating system and hardware is simple. Software can be divided into three types i.e. operating systems, BIOS as well as application software. In unison, these three types of software ensure that the hardware functions properly and provides necessary results.

The user first interacts with the IT application with a set of statements. This data is then relayed to the input/output system that sends the instructions to the operating system. After the OS has comprehended the commands, it translates this information into binary language (consisting of 1s and 0s) to the BIOS. Eventually, the BIOS then translates these codes and provides instructions to the hardware. After the functions have been completed, the results are relayed in the opposite order until the user finally reads the output and enters the next command.

Data storage

Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line. The first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, and thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world’s first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.

Databases

Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM’s Information Management System (IMS), which is still widely deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables, rows and columns. The first commercially available relational database management system (RDBMS) was available from Oracle in 1980.

All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity. A characteristic of all databases is that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself, in a database schema.

The extensible markup language (XML) has become a popular format for data representation in recent years. Although XML data can be stored in normal file systems, it is commonly held in relational databases to take advantage of their “robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort”. As an evolution of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), XML’s text-based structure offers the advantage of being both machine and human-readable.

Data retrieval

The terms “data” and “information” are not synonymous. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully. Most of the world’s digital data is unstructured, and stored in a variety of different physical formatseven within a single organization. Data warehouses began to be developed in the 1980s to integrate these disparate stores. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS).

Data transmission

Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception. It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels.

XML has been increasingly employed as a means of data interchange since the early 2000s, particularly for machine-oriented interactions such as those involved in web-oriented protocols such as SOAP, describing “data-in-transit rather than … data-at-rest”. One of the challenges of such usage is converting data from relational databases into XML Document Object Model (DOM) structures.

Data manipulation

Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore’s law): machines’ application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007; the per capita capacity of the world’s general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world’s storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled every 12.3 years.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications :  CBSE Class 12 Information Practice Sample Paper-03 (2016-17) is issued by CBSE, New Delhi for March 2017 examination. Questions are Realizing the importance of the Internet, Ms. Shikha a Mathematics teacher, has decided to use Internet as a medium to teach her students Mathematics in an interesting way.

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 4 IT Applications Complete Information

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Important Note – Preparing for XI & XII Commerce?
CAKART provides Indias top faculty each subject video classes and lectures – online & in Pen Drive/ DVD – at very cost effective rates. Get video classes from CAKART.in. Quality is much better than local tuition, so results are much better.
Watch Sample Video Now by clicking on the link(s) below – 
For any questions Request A Call Back  
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