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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming : To impart quality education to its learners, CBSE took the required steps and also provides a healthy and holistic school education, which gives students adequate space to develop physically and mentally. The board conducts research and based on that, it evaluates its syllabus and educational pattern. CBSE provides standard education to all and also promotes a state-of-the art environment that makes students vivacious and competent in all aspects. CBSE Syllabus is well-structured as several proficient subject experts are associated with this board. The syllabi of CBSE Maths, CBSE Science along with other syllabi are amended from time to time to make students up-to-date with current information so that they can meet all educational demands confidently.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming : Download CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details of study material in PDF format. My  Team Members provides CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Notes and CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Sample papers. The topics are given under following  this unit :

Review of Class XI Programming Fundamentals

Basic concept of Access specifier for classes, Members and methodsasic concept of Inheritance: need, Method Overloading and Overriding, Abstract Class and Interfaces,use of interfaces.

Commonly used libraries: String class and methods: to String(), concat(), length(), to LowerCase(),toUpperCase(), trim(), substring()

Math object: pow(), round()

Accessing MySQL database using ODBC/JDBC to connect with database.Web application development: URL, Web Server, Communicating with the web server, concept of Client and Server Side.

HTML based web pages covering basic tags – HTML, TITLE, BODY, H1..H6, Paragraph (P), LineBreak (BR), Section Separator (HR), FONT, TABLE, LIST (UL, OL), FORM;Creating and accessing static pages using HTML and introduction to XM

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming : Programming is the process of developing and implementing various sets of instructions to enable a computer to do a certain task. These instructions are considered computer programs and help the computer to operate smoothly. The language used to program computers is not understood by an untrained eye. Computer programming continues to be a necessary process as the Internet continues to expand. It is Higher education degree program, which usually requires a certain number of courses to be completed in order to receive certification or a degree.

Download here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details In PDF Format 

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming :  A programming language is a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of a computation or algorithm. Some, but not all, authors restrict the term “programming language” to those languages that can express all possible algorithms. Traits often considered important for what constitutes a programming language include:

Function and target :  A computer programming language is a language used to write computer programs, which involve a computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and possibly control external devices such as printers, disk drives, robots and so on. For example, PostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a computer printer or display. More generally, a programming language may describe computation on some, possibly abstract, machine. It is generally accepted that a complete specification for a programming language includes a description, possibly idealized, of a machine or processor for that language. In most practical contexts, a programming language involves a computer; consequently, programming languages are usually defined and studied this way. Programming languages differ from natural languages in that natural languages are only used for interaction between people, while programming languages also allow humans to communicate instructions to machines.
Abstractions :  Programming languages usually contain abstractions for defining and manipulating data structures or controlling the flow of execution. The practical necessity that a programming language support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle;[9] this principle is sometimes formulated as a recommendation to the programmer to make proper use of such abstractions.
Expressive power :  The theory of computation classifies languages by the computations they are capable of expressing. All Turing complete languages can implement the same set of algorithms. ANSI/ISO SQL-92 and Charity are examples of languages that are not Turing complete, yet often called programming languages.

Quality requirements

Whatever the approach to development may be, the final program must satisfy some fundamental properties. The following properties are among the most important:

  • Reliability: how often the results of a program are correct. This depends on conceptual correctness of algorithms, and minimization of programming mistakes, such as mistakes in resource management (e.g., buffer overflows and race conditions) and logic errors (such as division by zero or off-by-one errors).
  • Robustness: how well a program anticipates problems due to errors (not bugs). This includes situations such as incorrect, inappropriate or corrupt data, unavailability of needed resources such as memory, operating system services and network connections, user error, and unexpected power outages.
  • Usability: the ergonomics of a program: the ease with which a person can use the program for its intended purpose or in some cases even unanticipated purposes. Such issues can make or break its success even regardless of other issues. This involves a wide range of textual, graphical and sometimes hardware elements that improve the clarity, intuitiveness, cohesiveness and completeness of a program’s user interface.
  • Portability: the range of computer hardware and operating system platforms on which the source code of a program can be compiled/interpreted and run. This depends on differences in the programming facilities provided by the different platforms, including hardware and operating system resources, expected behavior of the hardware and operating system, and availability of platform specific compilers (and sometimes libraries) for the language of the source code.
  • Maintainability: the ease with which a program can be modified by its present or future developers in order to make improvements or customization, fix bugs and security holes, or adapt it to new environments. Good practices during initial development make the difference in this regard. This quality may not be directly apparent to the end user but it can significantly affect the fate of a program over the long term.
  • Efficiency/performance: Measure of system resources a program consumes (processor time, memory space, slow devices such as disks, network bandwidth and to some extent even user interaction): the less, the better. This also includes careful management of resources, for example cleaning up temporary files and eliminating memory leaks.

Readability of source code

In computer programming, readability refers to the ease with which a human reader can comprehend the purpose, control flow, and operation of source code. It affects the aspects of quality above, including portability, usability and most importantly maintainability.

Readability is important because programmers spend the majority of their time reading, trying to understand and modifying existing source code, rather than writing new source code. Unreadable code often leads to bugs, inefficiencies, and duplicated code. A study[9] found that a few simple readability transformations made code shorter and drastically reduced the time to understand it.

Following a consistent programming style often helps readability. However, readability is more than just programming style. Many factors, having little or nothing to do with the ability of the computer to efficiently compile and execute the code, contribute to readability.[10] Some of these factors include:

  • Different indent styles (whitespace)
  • Comments
  • Decomposition
  • Naming conventions for objects (such as variables, classes, procedures, etc.)

Algorithmic complexity

The academic field and the engineering practice of computer programming are both largely concerned with discovering and implementing the most efficient algorithms for a given class of problem. For this purpose, algorithms are classified into orders using so-called Big O notation, which expresses resource use, such as execution time or memory consumption, in terms of the size of an input. Expert programmers are familiar with a variety of well-established algorithms and their respective complexities and use this knowledge to choose algorithms that are best suited to the circumstances.

Methodologies

The first step in most formal software development processes is requirements analysis, followed by testing to determine value modeling, implementation, and failure elimination (debugging). There exist a lot of differing approaches for each of those tasks. One approach popular for requirements analysis is Use Case analysis. Many programmers use forms of Agile software development where the various stages of formal software development are more integrated together into short cycles that take a few weeks rather than years. There are many approaches to the Software development process.

Popular modeling techniques include Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) and Model-Driven Architecture (MDA). The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a notation used for both the OOAD and MDA.

A similar technique used for database design is Entity-Relationship Modeling (ER Modeling).

Implementation techniques include imperative languages (object-oriented or procedural), functional languages, and logic languages.

Measuring language usage

It is very difficult to determine what are the most popular of modern programming languages. Methods of measuring programming language popularity include: counting the number of job advertisements that mention the language, the number of books sold and courses teaching the language (this overestimates the importance of newer languages), and estimates of the number of existing lines of code written in the language (this underestimates the number of users of business languages such as COBOL).

Some languages are very popular for particular kinds of applications, while some languages are regularly used to write many different kinds of applications. For example, COBOL is still strong in corporate data centers often on large mainframe computers, Fortran in engineering applications, scripting languages in Web development, and C in embedded software. Many applications use a mix of several languages in their construction and use. New languages are generally designed around the syntax of a prior language with new functionality added, (for example C++ adds object-orientation to C, and Java adds memory management and bytecode to C++, but as a result, loses efficiency and the ability for low-level manipulation).

Debugging

Debugging is a very important task in the software development process since having defects in a program can have significant consequences for its users. Some languages are more prone to some kinds of faults because their specification does not require compilers to perform as much checking as other languages. Use of a static code analysis tool can help detect some possible problems. Normally the first step in debugging is to attempt to reproduce the problem. This can be a non-trivial task, for example as with parallel processes or some unusual software bugs. Also, specific user environment and usage history can make it difficult to reproduce the problem.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming : CBSE Class 12 Information Practice Sample Paper-03 (2016-17) is issued by CBSE, New Delhi for March 2017 examination. Questions are Realizing the importance of the Internet, Ms. Shikha a Mathematics teacher, has decided to use Internet as a medium to teach her students Mathematics in an interesting way.

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 2 Programming Complete Details

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