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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards : CBSE board has been offering a robust, holistic school education to students since its inception. The board first analyzes students’ learning requirements and according to that, it prepares suitable syllabus for each class. Additionally, the board designs appropriate question papers to evaluate students’ subject knowledge at the end of each academic session. Moreover, to keep students stress free during exams, the board also designs sample papers for each class. The CBSE board conducts research to get to know the current educational requirements and based on that, it chooses suitable subjects and their relevant topics. Hence, students, who are pursuing their studies under this board, get updated information and keep them prepared for any competitive exams.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards : Download CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards study material in PDF format. My  Team Members provides CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details Notes and CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Sample papers. The topics are given under following  This Unit :

Computer Networking: Networking – a brief overview, Basic concept of domain name, MAC, and IP Address, Identifying computers and users over a network (Domain Name, MAC ‘Media Access Control’ and IP address), domain name resolution, Network Topologies, Types of network – LAN,MAN, WAN, PAN; Wired Technologies – Co-Axial, Ethernet Cable, Optical Fiber;

Wireless Technologies – Blue Tooth, Infrared, Microwave, Radio Link, Satellite Link; Network Devices – Hub,Switch, Repeater, Gateway – and their functions Network security – denial of service, intrusion problems, snooping

Open Source Concepts:Open Source Software (OSS), common FOSS/FLOSS examples (e.g. Gnu/Linux, Firefox,
Open Office), common open standards (open document format Ogg Vorbis)

Indian Language Computing: character encoding, UNICODE, different types of fonts (open type vs true type, static vs dynamic), Entering Indian Language Text – phonetic and key map based.

Download here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details In PDF Format 

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards : The use of open standards can help provide interoperability and maximise access to resources and services. However this raises two questions: “Why open standards?” and “What are open standards?“.

Open standards can provide several benefits:

  • Application Independence: To ensure that access to resources is not dependent on a single application.
  • Platform Independence: To ensure that access to resources is not restricted to particular hardware platforms.
  • Long-term Access: To ensure that quality scholarly resources can be preserved and accessed over a long time frame.
  • Architectural Integrity: To ensure that the architectural framework for IT developments is robust and can be further developed in the future.

The term “open standards” is ambiguous. As described in Wikipedia “There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage” . The EU’s definition is :

  • The standard is adopted and will be maintained by a not-for-profit organisation, and its ongoing development occurs on the basis of an open decision-making procedure available to all interested parties (consensus or majority decision etc.).
  • The standard is adopted and will be maintained by a not-for-profit organisation, and its ongoing development occurs on the basis of an open decision-making procedure available to all interested parties (consensus or majority decision etc.).
  • The intellectual property – i.e. patents possibly present – of (parts of) the standard is made irrevocably available on a royalty-free basis.
  • There are no constraints on the re-use of the standard.

Other Types Of Standards

The term proprietary refers to formats which are owned by an organisation, group, etc. The term industry standard is often used to refer to a widely used proprietary standard. For example, the proprietary Microsoft Excel format is sometimes referred to as an industry standard for spreadsheets. To make matters even more confusing, the prefix is sometime omitted and MS Excel can be referred to as a standard.

To further confuse matters, companies which own proprietary formats may choose to make the specification freely available. Alternatively third parties may reverse engineer the specification and publish the specification. In addition tools which can view or create proprietary formats may be available on multiple platforms or as open source.

In all these cases, although there may appear to be no obvious barriers to use of the proprietary format, such formats should not be classed as open standards as they have not been approved by a neutral standards body. The organisation owning the format may chose to change the format or the usage conditions at any time. File formats in this category include Microsoft Office formats, Macromedia Flash and Java.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards : Networking is an emerging architecture that is dynamic, manageable, cost-effective, and adaptable, making it ideal for the high-bandwidth, dynamic nature of today’s applications. This architecture decouples the network control and forwarding functions enabling the network control to become directly programmable and the underlying infrastructure to be abstracted for applications and network services. The OpenFlow® protocol is a foundational element for building SDN solutions. The SDN architecture is:

  • Directly programmable: Network control is directly programmable because it is decoupled from forwarding functions.
  • Agile: Abstracting control from forwarding lets administrators dynamically adjust network-wide traffic flow to meet changing needs.
  • Centrally managed: Network intelligence is (logically) centralized in software-based SDN controllers that maintain a global view of the network, which appears to applications and policy engines as a single, logical switch.
  • Programmatically configured: SDN lets network managers configure, manage, secure, and optimize network resources very quickly via dynamic, automated SDN programs, which they can write themselves because the programs do not depend on proprietary software.
  • Open standards-based and vendor-neutral: When implemented through open standards, SDN simplifies network design and operation because instructions are provided by SDN controllers instead of multiple, vendor-specific devices and protocols.

Computing Trends are Driving Network Change

SDN addresses the fact that the static architecture of conventional networks is ill-suited to the dynamic computing and storage needs of today’s data centers, campuses, and carrier environments. The key computing trends driving the need for a new network paradigm include:

  • Changing traffic patterns: Applications that commonly access geographically distributed databases and servers through public and private clouds require extremely flexible traffic management and access to bandwidth on demand.
  • The “consumerization of IT”: The Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) trend requires networks that are both flexible and secure.
  • The rise of cloud services: Users expect on-demand access to applications, infrastructure, and other IT resources.
  • “Big data” means more bandwidth: Handling today’s mega datasets requires massive parallel processing that is fueling a constant demand for additional capacity and any-to-any connectivity.

In trying to meet the networking requirements posed by evolving computing trends, network designers find themselves constrained by the limitations of current networks:

  • Complexity that leads to stasis: Adding or moving devices and implementing network-wide policies are complex, time-consuming, and primarily manual endeavors that risk service disruption, discouraging network changes.
  • Inability to scale: The time-honored approach of link oversubscription to provision scalability is not effective with the dynamic traffic patterns in virtualized networks—a problem that is even more pronounced in service provider networks with large-scale parallel processing algorithms and associated datasets across an entire computing pool.
  • Vendor dependence: Lengthy vendor equipment product cycles and a lack of standard, open interfaces limit the ability of network operators to tailor the network to their individual environments.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards : : A computer network is a collection of interconnected computers. Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are capable of sharing hardware, software and exchanging information.

Need or advantages for Networking:

1. Resource sharing

2. Reliability

3. Cost factor

4. Communication medium.

Central Storage of data Application of Network:

1. Sharing

2. Access to remote database

3. Communication facilities

Terminology of Network:

Nodes: Nodes refer to the computers that are attached to a network that can share resources of the network.

Server: A computer that facilitates the sharing of data, hardware and software on the network is known as server. Each server has unique name on the network. A server can be of two types: (i) Dedicated server (ii) Non dedicated server

Domain Name Vs URL: Domain name is unique name assigned to a web site. The URL is the complete address of web page on the website. e.g URL: http:// www.cbse.nic.in/index.html Here http is protocol and www.cbse.nic.in is domain name.

Domain Name Resolution: Domain Name resolution is the process of getting corresponding IP address from a domain name.

Network Interface Unit (NIU): A network interface unit is an interpreter that helps to establish a communication between the server and the client.

MAC Address: It refers to the physical address assigned by the NIC manufacturer. A MAC address is a 6 byte address with each byte separated by a colon. For Example: 20:B5:03:63:2E: FC (The first three bytes refer to manufacturer ID and last three card no.)

IP address: Every machine on a TCP/IP network has a unique identifying number, called IP address: For Example: 202.27.94.137 (also known as internet protocol address)

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards :  CBSE Class 12 Information Practice Sample Paper-03 (2016-17) is issued by CBSE, New Delhi for March 2017 examination. Questions are Realizing the importance of the Internet, Ms. Shikha a Mathematics teacher, has decided to use Internet as a medium to teach her students Mathematics in an interesting way.

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Information Practices Unit 1 Networking And Open Standards Details

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Important Note – Preparing for XI & XII Commerce?
CAKART provides Indias top faculty each subject video classes and lectures – online & in Pen Drive/ DVD – at very cost effective rates. Get video classes from CAKART.in. Quality is much better than local tuition, so results are much better.
Watch Sample Video Now by clicking on the link(s) below – 
For any questions Request A Call Back  
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