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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report : The Central Board of Secondary Education (abbreviated as CBSE) is a Board of Education for public and private schools, under the Union Government of India. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has asked all schools affiliated to follow only NCERT curriculum. The first education board to be set up in India was the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education in 1921, which was under jurisdiction of Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior.[citation needed] In 1929, the government of India set up a joint Board named “Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana”. This included Ajmer, Merwara, Central India and Gwalior. Later it was confined to Ajmer, Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh. In 1952, it became the “Central Board of Secondary Education

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report : It has been increasingly recognized that entrepreneurship plays a crucial role in successful economies. The Schumpeterian approach to growth (Aghion and Howitt, 1997) advances the view that entrepreneurial dynamism is the key to innovation and growth. A growing body of research also emphasizes the role of entrepreneurs and the development of a vibrant small and medium enterprise sector in the process of economic development (World Bank, 2003). Understanding the factors that enable and hinder entrepreneurial activities is thus at the heart of this research agenda.

Download here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report In PDF Format.

Paradoxically, entrepreneurship is an underresearched topic in the social sciences – and especially in economics. It was not always so. Schumpeter (1934) discusses the role of the entrepreneur in the process of economic development at length. He imagines the entrepreneur as a creative, driven individual who finds “new combinations of [factors] of production” to develop a new product, corner a new market, or design a new technology. Schumpeter speculates about the psyche of the archetypal entrepreneur: he is motivated by a “dream to find a private kingdom, or dynasty…[driven by] the impulse to fight, to prove oneself superior to others, to succeed for the sake of…success itself” (p. XX).

In mainstream economics however, entrepreneurship has never played a central role. For decades, the main focus of economics has been on the allocation of resources and how it is achieved by markets or by governments. It is only recently with the revival of interest in the question of economic growth that Schumpeter’s views have acquired greater salience. Empirical research on entrepreneurship in economics is surprisingly limited.

The current project asks why entrepreneurship thrives in certain societies and not in others. Social scientists have proposed many possible explanations to account for cross-country differences. A major body of research in economic development has emphasized the role of credit constraints making it impossible for the poor to borrow to set up their own businesses (Banerjee and Newman, 1993). The literature on transition from socialism to capitalism has emphasized the importance of institutions securing property rights (see e.g., Johnson, McMillan and Woodruff, 2002; Roland, 2000, Che and Qian, 1997) and the nefarious role of predatory behavior by government bureaucrats (Djankov et al., 2002), and organized crime (Frye and Zhuravskaya, 2000, Roland and Verdier, 2003). Security of property rights is also an increasingly important theme in the development literature (Acemoglu et al., 2002; De Soto, 2000; Besley, 1995). Surprisingly little is known about the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs, with one recent exception. Lazear (2002) conducted a survey of Stanford University MBA graduates and found that those with a higher number of jobs and shorter job tenures before graduate school were most likely to become entrepreneurs afterwards.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report : By and large, today’s entrepreneurs appear to have the drive and the confidence to succeed in growing their businesses. If anything’s missing, it may simply be the tools and strategies to push back against time and financial pressures and keep expanding their customer base.

Opportunities for Entrepreneurs in 2017 and Beyond

Our survey results suggest several ways for entrepreneurs to supplement their inherent strengths with new tactics for growth. We predict that 2017’s most successful entrepreneurs will:

  • Choose marketing channels with trackable metrics: Our data indicate that traditional offline advertising is not a highly effective means of acquiring customers as we head into 2017, perhaps because its effects are typically so hard to track. Meanwhile, most entrepreneurs who are jumping into digital marketing report that it’s working well for them. When it’s time to move beyond person-to-person marketing, entrepreneurs will be best served by choosing channels—such as email marketing, paid media, and landing pages—that provide clear success metrics and customer attribution data.
  • Recognize that faster growth often requires better marketing: If you have a customer acquisition problem, you almost certainly have a marketing problem. Yet relatively few entrepreneurs see it that way, according to our survey. It may require a slight mindset shift to move from the spontaneous, organic growth that comes from referrals and word of mouth to the accelerated growth that’s possible with strategic marketing campaigns.
  • Explore email marketing automation to convert and retain more customers without significant budget or staffing changes: Of course, entrepreneurs don’t have unlimited time and money to spend on their marketing. That’s why we’d recommend investing in affordable automation solutions that business owners can deploy in house without special technical resources. With always-on email campaigns that respond to what contacts are doing online, entrepreneurs can close more leads and support more customers around the clock—often with the staff they already have.

Picking up the missing pieces in their marketing efforts will help entrepreneurs capitalize on the positive word of mouth and value creation that are already working in their favor. By investing in the tools and tactics needed to move quickly, these businesses can expect to see strong growth in the year to come.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report Complete Details

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report : The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the survey data collection. Section 3 presents summary statistics on the differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs in Russia. Section 4 reports the analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurship using probit and logit analysis. Section 5 concludes.

 The survey.

The pilot study was performed in Moscow and six other cities in three different regions of Russia, in an attempt to understand entrepreneurship in a wide range of settings: Nizhny Novgorod and Dzershinsk in the Nizhegorodskaya oblast; Perm and Chaykovsly in the Permskaya oblast in the Urals and Rostov on the Don and Taganrog in the Rostovskaya oblast, in the Soutern Volga region. These regions were selected for the varying perceptions on the ease of doing business reported in previous enterprise surveys (CEFIR, 2003; FIAS, 2004).

How do entrepreneurs compare to non-entrepreneurs?

We first present descriptive statistics, focusing on differences in means between the entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs, controlling for individual age, gender, education, and town.

Over 90% of the respondents are Russian, and there is no statistically significant difference in ethnic composition between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs. Despite the claims of Weber (1905) and others, there is similarly no difference in religious beliefs between the two groups – though we were surprised in general to see that a large majority of respondents in once strongly atheistic Russia declared themselves to be religious believers. There are significantly more married people among entrepreneurs, and they have more children although the average number is quite low (1.3 instead of 1.2). 44.3% of entrepreneurs declare to have been in the top 10% of students in secondary school while the corresponding figure is 23.7% for non entrepreneurs. This response suggests either that the sampled population is not representative or indicates overconfidence in the survey population – and an even higher level of overconfidence among entrepreneurs.

Determinants Of Entrepreneurship

To understand the determinants of entrepreneurship, we focus on variables that can plausibly be considered exogenous to the decision to become an entrepreneur. Higher levels of parents’ education are significantly positively associated with entrepreneurship in a probit specification (Table 6, first three regressions). The children of fathers who were members of the Communist Party are also significantly more likely to become entrepreneurs. Interpretation of this effect is complicated – more motivated and ambitious men might have been more likely to have joined the Party, and also are likely to have more motivated children. On the other hand, children of Party members may have inherited a more extensive social network of business and government contacts that might have smoothed the operation of an enterprise. Interestingly, having had a mother being a boss or a director has a negative effect on entrepreneurship, although the reasons why remain obscure. Having entrepreneurs in the family and among adolescent friends also has an important effect, although once again interpreting this as a causal effect is complicated by well-known identification problems.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Project Report Or Market Survey Report Complete Details

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