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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies : CBSE is a renowned educational Board, which comes under the Union Government of India. This eminent board was formed in 1952 and associated with the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana. Ajmer, Gwalior, Merwara and Central India were included in the administrative territory of this board along with the other places including Bhopal, Ajmer and Vindhya Pradesh. From 1952 onwards, it has been providing a standard education and robust learning environment to all. The Central Board of Secondary Education or CBSE is a prestigious board of education and it provides affiliation to public and private schools. Apart from this, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and kendriya vidyalayas are affiliated to this board.

Complete Information Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies : Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

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Complete Information Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies : A case study is a focused research on an organisation, enterprise, practice, behaviour or person undertaken to highlight an aspect that the study attempts to examine. For instance, a case study may be conducted on the pollution control methods being employed by an industry. Or a successful industrialist may be chosen as a subject of a case study to analyze and understand the strategies that the industrialist adopted :to achieve success.

Assessment of Case Studies

i) Presentation: Format, accuracy, clarity, authenticity and general neatness 7 marks

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ii) Analysis and Conclusions 3 marks

Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

What is Case Study Research?

CSR is a method whose defining features are: i) empirical study of contemporary situations in a natural setting; ii) a focus on asking “how” and “why” questions; and iii) the treatment of each case as an experiment in which the behaviors cannot be manipulated (Myers, 2009: tinyurl.com/7ts9bxe; Yin, 2009: tinyurl.com/7ywkcpy). Data collection can be accomplished using quantitative or qualitative methods, and it is a common misconception that case studies are based solely on the result of ethnographies or of participant observation (Dooley, 2002: tinyurl.com/7s5atpq; Yin, 2009). Case studies do not necessarily require fieldwork. In fact, they follow a linear, yet iterative process employing a variety of data collection methods to compare within and across cases for research validity.

Interest in entrepreneurship has been growing steadily in business schools, doctorate programs, and journal publications, raising the question of how research to advance the field is conducted. Theories on entrepreneurial processes and outcomes are drawn from a cross section of management science disciplines, including strategy, marketing, finance, operations, and organizational behaviour. If one considers entrepreneurship as encompassing vibrant processes of discovery, initiation, survival and growth, it is hard to imagine a research paradigm based predominantly on the hypothetico-deductive method. Case study research (CSR) provides an alternative method and opportunity to help build new theory across disciplines. It also offers an accepted framework for building theory from real-world, immediate observations rather than relying on retrospectives, surveys, or lab tests. Single-case studies, and longitudinal ones in particular, provide educators and practitioners with rich and valuable details from which to draw their own conclusions. Entrepreneurship scholars such as Bygrave (2007; tinyurl.com/7vwkr49) have pointed to the decline in descriptive research and relevance to practitioners over the past decade, attributing the cause to an increasing

Complete Information Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies : CSR has been successfully used for descriptive, exploratory (discovery), and explanatory (test, explain, or compare) theoretical purposes, and it is not limited in time to early stages of enterprises. Yin (2009; tinyurl.com/7ywkcpy) proposes a two-part definition of CSR, beginning with the scope, which helps distinguish between other types of research methods:

1. A case study is an empirical inquiry that:

  •  investigates a contemporary phenomenon in depth and within its real-life context, especially when
  •  the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.

Implicit in these two points is the lack of control on the part of the researcher: the setting and variables are fixed for observation. In the second part, Yin additionally differentiates the method based on technical detail:

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2. The case study inquiry: •

  • copes with the technically distinctive situation in which there will be many more variables of interest than data points, and as one result
  •  relies on multiple sources of evidence, with data needing to converge in a triangulating fashion, and as another result •
  • benefits from the prior development of theoretical.

Although there are variations in the definition, the methodology surrounding CSR design is reasonably consistent, with variations dependent upon the research paradigm. Research design is not dissimilar to other methodologies; with five components depending upon the epistemological stance (Yin, 2009):

1. a study’s research questions

2. its propositions (if positivist) or purpose

3. its unit(s) of analysis

4. the logic linking the data to the propositions (if positivist)

5. the criteria for interpreting the findings (if positivist)

Glossary

Epistemological: The philosophical nature of knowledge; its presuppositions, extent, methods, and validity.

Hypothetico-deductive method: Method of scientific progress whereby a general hypothesis is tested by deducing predictions that may be experimentally tested; when falsified, a new hypothesis is required.

Longitudinal: A type of study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time.

Participant observation: A research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a target study group though direct participation in their natural environment.

Positivist: A philosophical approach to knowledge based upon the deductive scientific method, i.e., development of testable, verifiable hypotheses with the goal of prediction, explanation, and theory development.

Survey Results

The number of cases used in the studies examined ranged from one to 29, indicating that single-case studies do not appear to be a barrier to publication. The basis for case selection was split evenly between random selection, replication, variance and serendipity; two of the studies did not provide enough information to determine how cases were chosen. Most cases were conducted at a single point in time, and only 17% were conducted longitudinally, in line with Chandler and Lyon (2001; tinyurl.com/7pfgkwf). The advancement of propositions in a study indicates a positivist application of the method. Half of the studies provided no theoretical propositions, which might be expected in a non-positivist epistemology. All case studies conducted interviews of some kind, and the majority were identified as semi-structured in the methods section. Somewhat surprisingly, 18% did not identify the type of interview, and only 17% used a CATA tool to assist in narrative analysis. Triangulation of secondary data sources is essential to the CSR method, and 82% of the studies provided information regarding how this was accomplished. If one accepts Yin’s (2009; tinyurl.com/7ywkcpy) positivist define.

A few topics are suggested for carrying out case studies:

  1. Drawing a profile of a successful entrepreneur.
  2. Studying a public sector undertaking and highlighting its sucess/failure, by analyzing the factors responsible.
  3. Studying a small scale unit in the locality to bring out the procedures and processes adopted by the unit to become a feasible business venture.
  4. A study of competition in business by choosing two or more rivals in the market and analyzing their strengths and weaknesses.
  5. Take the school itself for a case study and analyze any two aspects of the school plant for chalking out a plan of action: Infrastructure, academics, co-curricular activities etc.
  6. A case study on a thriving fast food shop/restaurant in your locality. What makes it so popular? A case study on the ways in which a business unit has mobilised its financial resources.
  7. A case study on the enterprise management techniques adopted by a business house. A case study on the marketing strategies of a successful consumer durable company.
  8. A case study on the financial management of a Public Limited Company. A case study on any Specialized Institution that supports and guides the establishment of a small scale unit.
  9. Studying the balance sheets of two big private companies to assess their trade and credit worthiness.
  10. Studying the inventory management of a large manufacturing industry to ascertain the processes involved for optimizing cost.
  11. Carrying out a case study on an established industrial house/company to find out the value system of the company and how it fulfils its social commitment/obligations.
  12. Carrying out a case study on an established industry to ascertain the processes followed to reduce/prevent pollution.

Complete Information Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce Entrepreneurship Assessment Of Case Studies

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