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Complete Details Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making

Complete Details Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making

CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making : CBSE conducts the final examinations for Class 10 and Class 12 every year in the month of March. The results are announced by the end of May. The board earlier conducted the AIEEE Examination for admission to undergraduate courses in engineering and architecture in colleges across India. However the AIEEE exam was merged with the IIT-Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) in 2013. The common examination is now called JEE(Main).

Complete Details Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making

CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making : Here we provides complete details about CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making and other CBSE Class 12 Commerce English important notes in pdf format. Here we provide direct download links for CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making notes in psd format. Download these CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making notes and read well.

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Complete Details Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making

CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making :

Unseen passage for Note making      8 marks (5+3)

How to make good notes:

    • Read the passage carefully and underline the important points and supporting details.
    • Make meaningful notes using main points and essential ideas only.
    • Organize your ideas into sub-titles, sub-heading and sub-sub-headings (Keep in the mind that main ideas may not have sub-headings and sub-sub-headings).
    • Do not use complete sentences. Convey the main ideas through short phrases.
    • Give a suitable title to your notes.
    • Use abbreviations (minimum4) and symbols.
    • Use recognizable abbreviations; e.g.- Govt., demo, WHO, UNO, can’t etc.
    • Use commonly used symbol –e.g.
  • i.e.         –         that is
  • + plus
  • % percent
  • & and
  • Provide a key for the abbreviations or symbols used.
  • Notes should be precise and meaningful.

FORMAT OF NOTES

TITLE

  1.    Sub-title
      1. Sub-heading
      2. _________________
      3. _________________

        1. Sub-sub-heading
        2. _______________
  1. ________________________
    1. ________________
    2. ________________

2.2.1. _____________

  1. ___________________
    1. _________________
    2. _________________
    3. _________________

 Key to Abbreviations:

SUMMARY

How to write a good summary:

  • Cover the main ideas in a single paragraph.
  • All unnecessary details such as example and quotes should not be included.
  • Use the same tense as in the passage.
  • Use indirect speech.
  • Avoid abbreviations and symbols.
  • Follow the world limit – 80 words.

Marking scheme

Notes

Title 1

Content 3

Abbreviations 1

Summary

Content 2

Expression 1

Complete Details Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making

CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making :

Read the passage carefully.

1. I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

2. Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that ‘the enemy’ wouldn’t discover me.

3. Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home ‒ that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn’t  let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost.

4. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn’t like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear ‘the right clothes’ and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

5. One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is  being able to recognise and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.

(b) Make a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (8)

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.

The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.

The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.

(Extracted from ‘The Tribune’)

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5)

(b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words. (3)

Q1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

1. Too many parents these days can’t  say no. As a result, they find themselves raising ‘children’  who respond greedily to the advertisements aimed right at them. Even getting what they want doesn’t satisfy some kids; they only want more. Now, a growing number of psychologists, educators and parents think it’s time to stop the madness and start teaching kids about what’s really important: values like hard work, contentment, honesty and compassion. The struggle to set limits has never been tougher ‒ and the stakes have never been higher. One recent study of adults  who were overindulged as children, paints a discouraging picture of their future: when given too much too soon, they grow up to be adults who have difficulty coping with life’s disappointments. They also have distorted sense of entitlement that gets in the way of success in the work place and in relationships.

2. Psychologists say that parents who overindulge their kids, set them up to be more vulnerable to future anxiety and depression. Today’s parents themselves raised on values of thrift and self-sacrifice, grew up in a culture where no was a household word. Today’s kids want much more, partly because there is so much more to want. The oldest members of this generation were born in the late 1980s, just as PCs and video games were making their assault on the family room. They think of MP3 players and flat screen TV as essential utilities, and they have developed strategies to get them. One survey of teenagers found that when they crave for something new, most expect to ask nine times before their parents give in. By every measure, parents are shelling out record amounts. In the heat of this buying blitz, even parents who desperately need to say no find themselves reaching for their credit cards.

3. Today’s parents aren’t equipped to deal with the problem. Many of them, raised in the 1960s and ’70s, swore they’d act differently from their parents and have closer relationships with their own children. Many even wear the same designer clothes as their kids and listen to the same music. And they work more hours; at the end of a long week, it’s  tempting to buy peace with ‘yes’ and not mar precious family time with conflict. Anxiety about future is another factor. How do well intentioned parents say no to all the sports gear and arts and language lessons they believe will help their kids thrive in an increasingly competitive world? Experts agree: too much love won’t spoil a child. Too few limits will.

4. What parents need to find, is a balance between the advantages of an affluent society and the critical life lessons that come from waiting, saving and working hard to achieve goals. That search for balance has to start early. Children need limits on their behaviour because they feel better and more secure when they live within a secured structure. Older children learn self-control by watching how others, especially parents act. Learning how to overcome challenges is essential to becoming a successful adult. Few parents ask kids to do chores. They think  their  kids  are  already  overburdened  by  social  and  academic pressures. Every individual can be of service to others, and life has meaning beyond one’s  own immediate happiness. That means parents eager to teach values have to take a long, hard look at their own.

(a) Answer the following:

(1) What values do parents and teachers want children to learn?
(2) What are the results of giving the children too much too soon?
(3) Why do today’s children want more?
(4) What  is  the  balance  which  the parents need  to  have in  today’s world?
(5) What is the necessity to set limits for children?

(b) Pick out words from the passage that mean the same as the following:

(1) a feeling of satisfaction (para 1)
(2) valuable (para 3)
(3) important  (para 4)

Complete Details Of CBSE Class 12 Commerce English Sec A Reading Unseen Passages And Note-making

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