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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing Complete Notes

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing :  The Central Board of Secondary Education or CBSE is a prestigious board of education and it provides affiliation to public and private schools. Apart from this, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and kendriya vidyalayas are affiliated to this board. To impart quality education to its learners, CBSE took the required steps and also provides a healthy and holistic school education, which gives students adequate space to develop physically and mentally.

The board conducts research and based on that, it evaluates its syllabus and educational pattern. CBSE provides standard education to all and also promotes a state-of-the art environment that makes students vivacious and competent in all aspects. CBSE Syllabus is well-structured as several proficient subject experts are associated with this board. The syllabus of CBSE Maths, CBSE Science along with other syllabus are amended from time to time to make students up-to-date with current information so that they can meet all educational demands confidently.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing Complete Notes

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing : Here our team members Provides CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing Complete notes. CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing Included 5 units. These CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing Five units included some topics those are under given following Units :

Part B: Business Finance and Marketing

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Unit 9: Financial Management

  • Concept and objectives of financial management.
  • Financial decisions : investment, financing and dividend and factors affecting.
  • Financial planning – concept and importance.
  • Capital Structure – concept and factors affecting.
  • Fixed and Working Capital – concept and factors affecting their requirements.

Unit 10: Financial Markets

  • Financial Markets: concept and types.
  • Money market and its instruments.
  • Capital market and its types (primary and secondary).
  • Stock Exchange – functions and training procedure. Depository Services and D’mat Account.
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – objectives and functions.

Unit 11: Marketing Management

  • Marketing – concept and functions.
  • Marketing management philosophies.
  • Marketing Mix – concept
  • Product – concept, branding, labeling and packaging. Price – factors determining price.
  • Physical distribution- concept, channels of distribution: types, choice of channels.
  • Promotion -concept and elements; advertising- concept, role, objections against advertising, personal selling – concept and qualities of a good salesman, sales promotion – concept and techniques, public relations – concept and role.

Unit 12: Consumer Protection

  • Concept and importance of consumer protection.
  • Consumer Protection Act 1986
  • – Meaning of consumer and consumer protection.
  • – Rights and responsibilities of consumers
  • – Who can file a complaint and against whom?
  • – Redressal machinery.
  • – Remedies available.
  • Consumer awareness – Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

Unit 13: Project Work

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing Complete Notes

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing : Business is a dynamic process that brings together technology, natural resources and human initiative in a constantly changing global environment. To understand the framework in which a business operates, a detailed study of the organisation and management of business processes and its interaction with the environment is required.

Part B: Business Finance and Marketing

Unit 9: Financial Management

Financial management refers to the efficient and effective management of money (funds) in such a manner as to accomplish the objectives of the organization. It is the specialized function directly associated with the top management. The significance of this function is not seen in the ‘Line’ but also in the capacity of ‘Staff’ in overall of a company. It has been defined differently by different experts in the field.

The term typically applies to an organization or company’s financial strategy, while personal finance or financial life management refers to an individual’s management strategy. It includes how to raise the capital and how to allocate capital, i.e. capital budgeting. Not only for long term budgeting, but also how to allocate the short term resources like current liabilities. It also deals with the dividend policies of the share holders.

Financial Management means planning, organizing, directing and controlling the financial activities such as procurement and utilization of funds of the enterprise. It means applying general management principles to financial resources of the enterprise.

Scope/Elements

  1. Investment decisions includes investment in fixed assets (called as capital budgeting). Investment in current assets are also a part of investment decisions called as working capital decisions.
  2. Financial decisions – They relate to the raising of finance from various resources which will depend upon decision on type of source, period of financing, cost of financing and the returns thereby.
  3. Dividend decision – The finance manager has to take decision with regards to the net profit distribution. Net profits are generally divided into two:
    1. Dividend for shareholders- Dividend and the rate of it has to be decided.
    2. Retained profits- Amount of retained profits has to be finalized which will depend upon expansion and diversification plans of the enterprise.

Objectives of Financial Management

The financial management is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of a concern. The objectives can be-

  1. To ensure regular and adequate supply of funds to the concern.
  2. To ensure adequate returns to the shareholders which will depend upon the earning capacity, market price of the share, expectations of the shareholders.
  3. To ensure optimum funds utilization. Once the funds are procured, they should be utilized in maximum possible way at least cost.
  4. To ensure safety on investment, i.e, funds should be invested in safe ventures so that adequate rate of return can be achieved.
  5. To plan a sound capital structure-There should be sound and fair composition of capital so that a balance is maintained between debt and equity capital.

Download here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Unit 9 Financial Management Complete Notes In PDF Format  

Functions of Financial Management

  1. Estimation of capital requirements: A finance manager has to make estimation with regards to capital requirements of the company. This will depend upon expected costs and profits and future programmes and policies of a concern. Estimations have to be made in an adequate manner which increases earning capacity of enterprise.
  2. Determination of capital composition: Once the estimation have been made, the capital structure have to be decided. This involves short- term and long- term debt equity analysis. This will depend upon the proportion of equity capital a company is possessing and additional funds which have to be raised from outside parties.
  3. Choice of sources of funds: For additional funds to be procured, a company has many choices like-
    1. Issue of shares and debentures
    2. Loans to be taken from banks and financial institutions
    3. Public deposits to be drawn like in form of bonds.

    Choice of factor will depend on relative merits and demerits of each source and period of financing.

  4. Investment of funds: The finance manager has to decide to allocate funds into profitable ventures so that there is safety on investment and regular returns is possible.
  5. Disposal of surplus: The net profits decision have to be made by the finance manager. This can be done in two ways:
    1. Dividend declaration – It includes identifying the rate of dividends and other benefits like bonus.
    2. Retained profits – The volume has to be decided which will depend upon expansional, innovational, diversification plans of the company.
  6. Management of cash: Finance manager has to make decisions with regards to cash management. Cash is required for many purposes like payment of wages and salaries, payment of electricity and water bills, payment to creditors, meeting current liabilities, maintainance of enough stock, purchase of raw materials, etc.
  7. Financial controls: The finance manager has not only to plan, procure and utilize the funds but he also has to exercise control over finances. This can be done through many techniques like ratio analysis, financial forecasting, cost and profit control, etc.

Unit 10: Financial Markets

A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities, commodities, and other fungible items of value at low transaction costs and at prices that reflect supply and demand. Securities include stocks and bonds, and commodities include precious metals or agricultural products. The financial market is a broad term describing any marketplace where trading of securities including equities, bonds, currencies and derivatives occurs. Although some financial markets are very small with little activity, some financial markets including the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the forex markets trade trillions of dollars of securities daily

Download here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Unit 10 Financial Markets Complete Notes In PDF Format 

Unit 11: Marketing Management

Marketing management is the organizational discipline which focuses on the practical application of marketing orientation, techniques and methods inside enterprises and organizations and on the management of a firm’s marketing resources and activities.

Marketing management employs tools from economics and competitive strategy to analyze the industry context in which the firm operates. These include Porter’s five forces, analysis of strategic groups of competitors, value chain analysis and others. Depending on the industry, the regulatory context may also be important to examine in detail.

Download here  CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Unit 11 Marketing Management Complete Notes In PDF Format 

In competitor analysis, marketers build detailed profiles of each competitor in the market, focusing on their relative competitive strengths and weaknesses using SWOT analysis. Marketing managers will examine each competitor’s cost structure, sources of profits, resources and competencies, competitive positioning and product differentiation, degree of vertical integration, historical responses to industry developments, and other factors.

Marketing management often conduct market research and marketing research to perform marketing analysis. Marketers employ a variety of techniques to conduct market research, but some of the more common include:

  • Qualitative marketing research, such as focus groups and various types of interviews
  • Quantitative marketing research, such as statistical surveys
  • Experimental techniques such as test markets
  • Observational techniques such as ethnographic (on-site) observation

Marketing managers may also design and oversee various environmental scanning and competitive intelligence processes to help identify trends and inform the company’s marketing analysis.

Unit 12: Consumer Protection

Consumer protection laws are a form of government regulation that aim to protect the rights of consumers. For example, a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food.

In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace. The laws are designed to prevent the businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices from gaining an advantage over competitors. They may also provide additional protection for those most vulnerable in society. Consumer protection laws are a form of government regulation that aim to protect the rights of consumers. For example, a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food.

Consumer protection is linked to the idea of consumer rights, and to the formation of consumer organizations, which help consumers make better choices in the marketplace and get help with consumer complaints. Other organizations that promote consumer protection include government organizations and self-regulating business organizations such as consumer protection agencies and organizations, ombudsmen, the Federal Trade Commission in America, and Better Business Bureaus in America and Canada, etc. A consumer is defined as someone who acquires goods or services for direct use or ownership rather than for resale or use in production and manufacturing.[Consumer interests can also be protected by promoting competition in the markets which directly and indirectly serve consumers, consistent with economic efficiency, but this topic is treated in competition law.

Download here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Unit 12 Consumer Protection Complete Notes In PDF Format 

Important Note – Preparing for XI & XII Commerce?
CAKART provides Indias top faculty each subject video classes and lectures – online & in Pen Drive/ DVD – at very cost effective rates. Get video classes from CAKART.in. Quality is much better than local tuition, so results are much better.
Watch Sample Video Now by clicking on the link(s) below – 
For any questions Request A Call Back  

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Business Studies Part B Business Finance And Marketing Complete Notes

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