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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System : CBSE is a renowned educational Board, which comes under the Union Government of India. This eminent board was formed in 1952 and associated with the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana. Ajmer, Gwalior, Merwara and Central India were included in the administrative territory of this board along with the other places including Bhopal, Ajmer and Vindhya Pradesh. From 1952 onwards, it has been providing a standard education and robust learning environment to all. The Central Board of Secondary Education or CBSE is a prestigious board of education and it provides affiliation to public and private schools. Apart from this, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and kendriya vidyalayas are affiliated to this board.

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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System :  A database is an organized collection of data. It is the collection of schems, tables, queries, reports, views, and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies.

A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, MariaDB, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, Sybase, SAP HANA, MemSQL and IBM DB2. A database is not generally portable across different DBMSs, but different DBMS can interpenetrate by using standards such as SQL and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one DBMS. Database management systems are often classified according to the database model that they support; the most popular database systems since the 1980s have all supported the relational model as represented by the SQL language. Sometimes a DBMS is loosely referred to as a “database”

Terminology and overview

Formally, a “database” refers to a set of related data and the way it is organized. Access to this data is usually provided by a “database management system” (DBMS) consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database (although restrictions may exist that limit access to particular data). The DBMS provides various functions that allow entry, storage and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized.

Because of the close relationship between them, the term “database” is often used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it.

Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is often used to refer to any collection of related data (such as a spreadsheet or a card index). This article is concerned only with databases where the size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system.

Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups:

  • Data definition – Creation, modification and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
  • Update – Insertion, modification, and deletion of the actual data.
  • Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications. The retrieved data may be made available in a form basically the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database.
  • Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, and recovering information that has been corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure.

Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model.”Database system” refers collectively to the database model, database management system, and database.

Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are usually multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage. RAID is used for recovery of data if any of the disks fail. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are also used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs typically rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions.

Since DBMSs comprise a significant market, computer and storage vendors often take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans.

Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model(s) that they support (such as relational or XML), the type(s) of computer they run on (from a server cluster to a mobile phone), the query language(s) used to access the database (such as SQL or XQuery), and their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability, resilience, and security.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System : A DBMS is a software that allows creation, definition and manipulation of database. Dbms is actualy a tool used to perform any kind of operation on data in database. Dbms also provides protection and security to database. It maintains data consistency in case of multiple users. Here are some examples of popular dbms, MySql, Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft Access and IBM DB2 etc. A Database is a collection of related data organised in a way that data can be easily accessed, managed and updated. Any piece of information can be a data, for example name of your school. Database is actually a place where related piece of information is stored and various operations can be performed on it.

Components of Database System

The database system can be divided into four components.

component of database system

  • Users : Users may be of various type such as DB administrator, System developer and End users.
  • Database application : Database application may be Personal, Departmental, Enterprise and Internal
  • DBMS : Software that allow users to define, create and manages database access, Ex: MySql, Oracle etc.
  • Database : Collection of logical data.

Functions of DBMS

  • Provides data Independence
  • Concurrency Control
  • Provides Recovery services
  • Provides Utility services
  • Provides a clear and logical view of the process that manipulates data.

Advantages of DBMS

  • Segregation of applicaion program.
  • Minimal data duplicacy.
  • Easy retrieval of data.
  • Reduced development time and maintainance need.

Disadvantages of DBMS

  • Complexity
  • Costly
  • Large in size

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System Complete Information

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System : A DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. The DBMS essentially serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs, ensuring that data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.

The DBMS manages three important things: the data, the database engine that allows data to be accessed, locked and modified — and the database schema, which defines the database’s logical structure. These three foundational elements help provide concurrency, security, data integrity and uniform administration procedures. Typical database administration tasks supported by the DBMS include change management, performance monitoring/tuning and backup and recovery. Many database management systems are also responsible for automated rollbacks, restarts and recovery as well as the logging and auditing of activity.

The DBMS is perhaps most useful for providing a centralized view of data that can be accessed by multiple users, from multiple locations, in a controlled manner. A DBMS can limit what data the end user sees, as well as how that end user can view the data, providing many views of a single database schema. End users and software programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located or on what type of storage media it resides because the DBMS handles all requests.

The DBMS can offer both logical and physical data independence. That means it can protect users and applications from needing to know where data is stored or having to be concerned about changes to the physical structure of data (storage and hardware). As long as programs use the application programming interface (API) for the database that is provided by the DBMS, developers won’t have to modify programs just because changes have been made to the database.

With relational DBMSs (RDBMSs), this API is SQL, a standard programming language for defining, protecting and accessing data in a RDBMS.

Popular types of DBMSes

Popular database models and their management systems include:

Relational database management system (RDMS)  – adaptable to most use cases, but RDBMS Tier-1 products can be quite expensive.

NoSQL DBMS – well-suited for loosely defined data structures that may evolve over time.

In-memory database management system (IMDBMS) – provides faster response times and better performance.

Columnar database management system (CDBMS) – well-suited for data warehouses that have a large number of similar data items.

Cloud-based data management system – the cloud service provider is responsible for providing and maintaining the DBMS.

Advantages of a DBMS

Using a DBMS to store and manage data comes with advantages, but also overhead. One of the biggest advantages of using a DBMS is that it lets end users and application programmers access and use the same data while managing data integrity. Data is better protected and maintained when it can be shared using a DBMS instead of creating new iterations of the same data stored in new files for every new application. The DBMS provides a central store of data that can be accessed by multiple users in a controlled manner.

Central storage and management of data within the DBMS provides:

  • Data abstraction and independence
  • Data security
  • A locking mechanism for concurrent access
  • An efficient handler to balance the needs of multiple applications using the same data
  • The ability to swiftly recover from crashes and errors, including restartability and recoverability
  • Robust data integrity capabilities
  • Logging and auditing of activity
  • Simple access using a standard application programming interface (API)
  • Uniform administration procedures for data

Another advantage of a DBMS is that it can be used to impose a logical, structured organization on the data. A DBMS delivers economy of scale for processing large amounts of data because it is optimized for such operations.

A DBMS can also provide many views of a single database schema. A view defines what data the user sees and how that user sees the data. The DBMS provides a level of abstraction between the conceptual schema that defines the logical structure of the database and the physical schema that describes the files, indexes and other physical mechanisms used by the database. When a DBMS is used, systems can be modified much more easily when business requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disrupting the existing system and applications can be insulated from how data is structured and stored.

Of course, a DBMS must perform additional work to provide these advantages, thereby bringing with it the overhead. A DBMS will use more memory and CPU than a simple file storage system. And, of course, different types of DBMS will require different types and levels of system resources.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Database Management System Complete Information

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