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CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Accounting Application Of Electronic Spreadsheet Notes

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Accounting Application Of Electronic Spreadsheet Notes

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Accounting Application Of Electronic Spreadsheet : The CBSE envisions a robust, vibrant and holistic school education that will engender excellence in every sphere of human endeavour. The Board is committed to provide quality education to promote intellectual, social and cultural vivacity among its learners. It works towards evolving a learning process and environment, which empowers the future citizens to become global leaders in the emerging knowledge society. The Board advocates Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation with an emphasis on holistic development of learners. The Board commits itself to providing a stress-free learning environment that will develop competent, confident and enterprising citizens who will promote harmony and peace.

Download here CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Accounting Application Of Electronic Spreadsheet Complete Details In PDF Format 

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Accounting Application Of Electronic Spreadsheet Notes

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Accounting Application Of Electronic Spreadsheet :   Accountancy is the process of managing the income and expenses of a business Manage your accountancy needs with a comprehensive accounting system such as Debtor.

The process of recording and summarizing financial transactions is known as ‘bookkeeping’. When the data is produced in reports for the use of individuals or companies outside the organisation, the process is called ‘financial accounting’. It refers to the process of measuring, summarizing, and communicating the financial information produced by bookkeeping to classify and explain account information to relevant parties such as shareholders and managers.

The use of this information also makes it possible to forecast future financial developments, analyse different areas of the business and evaluate business potential.

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Accounting Application Of Electronic Spreadsheet Notes

CBSE Class 12 Commerce Accountancy Accounting Application Of Electronic Spreadsheet :  Electronic spreadsheets, such as the popular Microsoft application Excel, have a wide variety of uses, but five common examples are:

1) Organize data: The first and foremost function of any spreadsheet is to allow for the entry, retention, organization and manipulation of data.

2) Presentations: Once data has been entered into the spreadsheet, it is often used to generate charts or graphs to provide visual interpretations that are often integrated into formal presentations.

3) Database: As with the facilitation of presentations, spreadsheets can also provide external applications with the data needed to generate reports, lists, or format printed output such as labels. Additionally, they often supply or retain the data needed to drive larger functions like website operations.

4) Ongoing Tracking: Because spreadsheets can be copied and modified, they are often the best means to generate and track ongoing activities, such as recurring payroll activity or monthly cash flow. The ending balance from the previous period can be transferred as the starting balance to a new sheet and subsequent activity can be recorded to produce a chronological history of activity.

5) Data Calculation: Because spreadsheets allow users to program mathematical formulas within the cells of the sheet, they are very useful in creating worksheets to accomplish recurring calculations. For example, often spreadsheets are customized to create time sheets for employees. The employee enters the time they arrive at work, when they take breaks, and when they leave, and the spreadsheet can automatically compile the hours the employee has worked.

Application areas of electronic spreadsheets

1. financial accounting

2. budget forecasts

3. result preparation.

4. keeping database

5. graphical analyses

6. automatic generation of schedule sheets through macros.

The Importance of an Electronic Spreadsheet

Before electronic spreadsheets, businesses used mainframe computers to process large amounts of data; organizations could not justify the high cost of programming for small desktop applications. Accountants used journal pads and adding machines to supplement the data on their mainframe printouts. The first personal computer electronic spreadsheets, including Visicalc and Lotus 1-2-3, revolutionized business because they were fast, flexible and low in cost. Today’s software, such as Microsoft’s Excel, continue the productivity benefits pioneered in the earlier programs.


Electronic spreadsheet software improves productivity by reducing the labor of everyday accounting tasks. As you type the data into the spreadsheet, formulas instantly calculate multiple totals at the same time. For example, you no longer need to manually add up totals by salesperson, and by week, month and year as separate steps; the spreadsheet does this automatically. It also does averages, minimum/maximum functions and more advanced formulas and statistics. As an added bonus, spreadsheet software such as Microsoft’s Excel produces graphs and charts with a few mouse clicks.


The ubiquity of spreadsheet software means you can share spreadsheet files with your office colleagues, business partners, auditors and others. You can send spreadsheet files through local networks or email in a few seconds. Mobile professionals take their spreadsheet with them on notebook computers, tablets and mobile phones, updating information in the field.


Setting up a new spreadsheet is relatively easy, as is adding new rows, columns and formulas to an existing one. A spreadsheet follows a simple grid system, wherein every cell can contain a piece of text, numeric data item or formula. The program imposes no structure on your spreadsheet other than the row-column grid; you set up heading text, rows and columns of data, and formulas wherever you want and in any combination.

Low Cost

The cost of spreadsheets ranges from free to a few hundred dollars. Apache OpenOffice’s Calc and Google spreadsheets are available at no cost; you can import standard Microsoft Excel spreadsheets into them or work with their native formats. At the time of this publication, Microsoft’s Office 2010 includes Excel, Word, PowerPoint and other programs for prices ranging from $120 for home editions to a $500 version for professionals. Low costs allow fledgling businesses, nonprofit organizations and storefront proprietors to reap the same spreadsheet benefits as global corporations.

The difference of word processing applications and spreadsheets

A spreadsheet is a computer application that simulates a paper worksheet. It displays multiple cells that together make up a grid consisting of rows and columns, each cell containing either alphanumeric text or numeric values. A spreadsheet cell may alternatively contain a formula that defines how the contents of that cell is to be calculated from the contents of any other cell (or combination of cells) each time any cell is updated. Spreadsheets are frequently used for financial information because of their ability to re-calculate the entire sheet automatically after a change to a single cell is made. A word processor (more formally known as document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material.

Five common business that use electronic spreadsheets

1. To help calculate pay.

2. To print charts and graphs.

3. To find budget.

4. To find and calculate stock

5. To find how much storage you have

Advantages of electronic spreadsheet

One of the most beneficial advantage of electronic spreadsheet advantage of using electronic spreadsheet is a savings in manpower and time . Spreadsheets allow a user to easily compute mathematical functions. spreadsheet software package can be used for a variety of tasks to manage a program or research project and to cut costs in evaluation. LOTUS 1 2 3 is a versatile, commonly available, and well-known electronic spreadsheet package. Spreadsheets were originally designed to emulate financial ledgers and balance sheets. They are useful for estimating projected costs and for simplified budgets. Subtotals and totals for a number of categories are automatically updated when an amount is changed. Similar techniques may be used to collect, code, sort, and analyze research data–a particularly useful technique for tabulating questionnaire responses. It is also possible to enter questionnaire responses into the spreadsheet while conducting a telephone interview. Several commands may be chained together into a macro, in order to simplify data entry at the terminal. LOTUS can be programmed to perform statistical procedures, and can sort and graph data. Data are stored on a floppy diskette and may be transferred to a mainframe computer, word processor, or software package. The amount of data which can fit into a spreadsheet is limited by the amount of memory capacity of the hardware system and the ease of moving around many screens of dataFor the most part spreadsheets are benefical in the educational environment because reports can be easily generated and can be used as a way to tabulate many kinds of information, not just financial records

The application of buffer circuit in Electronics

One prominent application is this: Some circuits have an output impedance very high. If these circuits are coupled with another circuit of low input impedance, the desired functionality of the latter circuit will be drastically affected. Because the first circuit tries to deliver large voltage to the second and the second invariably requires small input voltage. To avoid the circuit dis functionality, a buffer circuit (a circuit with high i/p impedance and a low o/p impedance) is used. Another application is in the delay matching. This is an advanced topic though. The technology is still new. In delay matching, the latter circuit requires a delay of say “n” seconds after the first circuit’s output. A buffer circuit is used in such cases also. The circuit design is totally different than the impedance matching case.

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