CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data


CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data – Introduction Data is the collected information which is used for further analysis to derive some meaningful conclusion or result. There are two sources of data collection internal sources and external sources. Internal sources of data are the internal reports of an organisation. CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data available here.External sources are classified into primary data and secondary data. Primary data is gathered for the first time by the investigator for own purpose. Accuracy, originality, authenticity, etc. are merits of primary data. Collection of primary data is expensive, laborious and requires high skills, which limits its uses.CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data ncrt solution providing here.

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection of data important concepts

POINTS TO REMEMBER :
1. Collection of data is the first important aspect of statistical survey.
2. Data – Information which can be expressed in numbers.
3. Two sources of data – Primary & Secondary Primary data – data collected by investigator himself
secondary data – data collected by someone and used by the investigator.
4. Difference between Primary and SecondaryData
a] Primary data is original data collected by the investigator while secondary data is already
existing and not original.
b] Primary data is always collected for a specific purpose while secondary data has already been
collected for some other purpose.
c] Primary is costlier or is more expensive whereas secondary data is less expensive.
5. Methods / Sources of Collection of Primary Data :
a] Direct Personal Interview :– Data is personally collected by the interviewer.
b] Indirect Oral Investigation :– Data is collected from third parties who have information about
subject of enquiry.
c] Information from correspondents :– Data is collected from agents appointed in the area of
investigation.
d] Mailed questionnaire :– Data is collected through questionnaire [list of questions] mailed to
the informant.
e] Questionnaire filled by enumerators :– Data is collected by trained enumerators who fill
questionnaires.
f ] Telephonic interviews :– Data is collected through an interview over the telephone with the
interviewer. Questionnaire – A list of questions with space for answers.
6. Pilot Survey :
Try-out of the questionnaire on a small group to find its short comings
7. Qualities of a good questionnaire :
a] A covering letter with objectives and scope of survey.
b] Minimum number of questions.
c] Avoid personal questions.
d] Questions should be clear and simple.
e] Questions should be logically arranged..
Sources of Secondary Data:
1. Published Source :– Government publications, Semi-government publications etc.
2. Unpublished Source :– Census of India [They are collected by the organizations for their own
record]
Sampling Methods :
1] Random sampling
2] Non-random sampling
1. Random Sampling ;–
It is a sampling method in which all the items have equal chance of being selected and the
individuals who are selected are just like the ones who are not selected.
2. Non-random sampling :–
It is a sampling method in which all the items do not have an equal chance of being selected and
judgment of the investigator plays an important role.
Types of Statistical errors:
1] Sampling errors.
2] Non-sampling errors
Sampling Error :
It is the difference between sample value and actual value of a characteristic of a population.
Non-sampling errors: Errors that accurate the stage of collecting data.
Types of non-sampling errors:
a] Errors of measurement due to incorrect response.
b] Errors of non-response of some units of the sample selected.
c] Sampling bias occurs when sample does not include some members of the target population.

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CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection of Data notes

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection of Data ncrt solution

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Organization of data important concepts

1. Classification of Data :-
The process of grouping data according to their characteristics is known as classification of data.
2. Objectives of Classification :-
a] To simplify complex data
b] To facilitate understanding
c] To facilitate comparison
d] To make analysis and interpretation easy.
e] To arrange and put the data according to their common characteristics.
3. Statistical Series :-
Systematic arrangement of statistical data

Systematic arrangement of statistical data

 

Can be on the basis of individual units :- The data can be individually presented in two
forms:
i] Raw data : Data collected in original form.
ii] Individual Series : The arrangement of raw data individually. It can be expressed in two ways.
a] Alphabetical arrangement : Alphabetical order
b] Array : Ascending or descending order.
II. Can be on the basis of Frequency Distribution :- Frequency distribution refers to a table in
which observed values of a variable are classified according to their numerical magnitude.
1. Discrete Series :-
A variable is called discrete if the variable can take only some particular values.
2. Continuous Series :-
A variable is called continuous if it can take any value in a given range. In constructing continuous
series we come across terms like:
a] Class : Each given internal is called a class e.g., 0-5, 5-10.
b] Class limit : There are two limits upper limit and lower limit.
c] Class interval : Difference between upper limit and lower limit.
d] Range : Difference between upper limit and lower limit.

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CBSE class 11 commerce Economics organisation of Data notes

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics organisation of Data ncrt solution

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Presentation of data important concepts

Important terms and concepts
1. Tabulation – Orderly arrangement of data in rows and columns.
2. Objectives of Tabulation:
a] Helps in understanding and interpreting the data easily.
b] It helps in comparing data.
c] It saves space and time.
d] Tabulated data can be easily presented in the form of diagrams and graphs.
3. Main parts of a table.
a] Title of the table – It is a brief explanation of contents of the table.
b] Table number – It is given to be used for reference.
c] Captions – A word or phrase which explains the content of a column of a table.
d] Stubs – Stubs explain contents of row of a table.
e] Body of the table – Most important part of table as it contains data.
f] Head note – Head note is inserted to convey complete information of title.
g] Source note -refers to the source from which information has been taken.
h] Foot note – It is used for pointing exceptions to the data
Types of Table:
1. Simple Table – data are presented according to one characteristic only.
2. Double Table – data are presented about two interrelated characteristics of a particular
variable.
3. Three way table – This table gives information regarding three interrelated characteristics of a
particular variable.
4. Manifold table – This table explains more than three characteristics of the data.
Diagrammatic Presentation of Data
Utility or uses of diagrammatic presentation:
1. Makes complex data simple.
2. Diagrams are attractive.
3. Diagrams save time when compared to other methods.
4. Diagrams create a lasting impression on the minds of observers.
Limitations of diagrammatic presentation:
1. They do not provide detailed information.
2. Diagrams can be easily misinterpreted.
3. Diagrams can take much time and labour.
4. Exact measurement is not possible in diagrams.
Kinds of diagrams:
I. Line diagrams – Lines are drawn vertically to show large number of items.
II. Bar diagram
1. Simple Bar diagrams – These diagrams represent only one particular type of data.
2. Multiple Bar diagrams – These diagrams represent more than one type of data at a time.
3. Subdivided Bar diagram or Component Bar diagram – These diagrams present total
values and parts in a set of a data.
III. Pie diagrams – Circle may be divided into various sectors representing various components.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF DATA
Advantages of Graphic Presentation:
1. Graphs represent complex data in a simple form.
2. Values of median, mode can be found through graphs.
3. Graphs create long lasting effect on people’s mind.
Disadvantages of graphic Presentation:
1. Graphs do not show precise values.
2. Only experts can interpret graphs.
3. Graphs may suggest wrong conclusions.
Rules of Constructing graph:
1. The heading of the graph should be simple, clear and self explanatory.
2. Graphs should always be drawn with reference to some scale.
3. False baselines should be drawn if the difference between zero and the smallest value is high.
4. Index should be made if different lines are drawn as in time series graphs.
Types of Graphs:
1. Line frequency graphs – Such graphs are used to represent discrete series.
2. Histogram – A two dimensional diagram whose length shows frequency and the breadth shows
size of class interval.
Frequency Polygon: A histogram becomes frequency polygon when a line is drawn joining
midpoints of tops of all rectangles in a histogram. Frequency Curve: Smooth curve joining the
points corresponding to the frequency and provides frequency curve of the data.

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CBSE class 11 commerce Economics presentation of Data ncrt solution

CBSE class 11 commerce Economics Collection Organisation and Presentation of Data

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