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Students Of CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes

Students Of CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes

CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework :  CBSE is a renowned educational Board, which comes under the Union Government of India. The Central Board of Secondary Education or CBSE is a prestigious board of education and it provides affiliation to public and private schools. Apart from this, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and kendriya vidyalayas are affiliated to this board.

CBSE provides balanced academic structure and equal educational pattern to all its affiliated schools. The schemes of studies, academic guidelines and text materials are supervised by this unit in accordance with the acts and policies approved by the Government of India.

Students Of CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes

CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework : Class 11 is a future deciding part of the academic career and with the lengthy syllabus sometimes students get confused. We keep researching on this issue to solve this pain point by reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concept and content. For your convenience each subject is individually dealt with new CBSE curriculum and rectified accordingly.

Students Of CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes

CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework : CBSE Classes 11 fundamentals of accounting is one of the commerce classes 11 subjects and including it as an information system play and important role in this field of study. The important points and syllabus structure is given here.

The whole syllabus is divided into 3 parts, Part A- Financial accounting 1, Part B- Financial accounting 2 and Part C- Project work.

Part A has 2 units -Theoretical framework and accounting process. Part B has 3 units- Financial statements of sole proprietorship from complete and incomplete records, Financial statements of not for profit organizations and Computers in accounting.

Details of project work is added in this link. Theory contains 90 marks while project work is of 10 marks.

Students Of CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes

CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework : Download CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes in PDF format. Here we provides solved papers, board question papers, revision notes and NCERT solutions for CBSE class 11 Accountancy Theoretical Framework. The topics are under given following points:

Download here Complete details of CBSE class 11 Accountancy study material in PDF format


Unit-1: Theoretical Frame Work

Introduction to Accounting

  • Accounting- concept, objectives, advantages and limitations, types of accounting information; users of accounting information and their needs.
  • Basic accounting terms: business transaction, account, capital, drawings, liabilities (non – current and current); assets (non-current and current) fixed assets (tangible and intangible assets), receipts (capital and revenue), expenditure (capital, revenue and deferred), expense, income, profits, gains and losses, purchases, purchases returns, sales, sales returns, goods, stock, inventory, trade receivables (debtors and bills receivable), trade payables (creditors and bills payable), cost, vouchers, discount – trade and cash.

Theory Base of Accounting

  • Fundamental accounting assumptions: going concern, consistency and accrual.
  • Accounting principles: accounting entity, money measurement, accounting period, full disclosure, materiality, prudence, cost concept, matching concept and dual aspect.
  • Accounting Standards and IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards): concept and objectives
  • Double entry system of accounting.
  • Bases of accounting – cash basis and accrual basis

A theoretical framework consists of concepts and, together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that is used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that relate to the broader areas of knowledge being considered.

The theoretical framework is most often not something readily found within the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research studies for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.

The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways:

  1. An explicit statement of  theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
  2. The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
  3. Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to intellectually transition from simply describing a phenomenon you have observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
  4. Having a theory helps you identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest and highlights the need to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.

Students Of CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes

CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework : By virtue of its applicative nature, good theory in the social sciences is of value precisely because it fulfills one primary purpose: to explain the meaning, nature, and challenges associated with a phenomenon, often experienced but unexplained in the world in which we live, so that we may use that knowledge and understanding to act in more informed and effective ways.

A conceptual framework is not as well developed as is a theoretical framework.

Some theoretical frameworks from nursing

  • Uncertainty: Mishel (1988)
  • Interpersonal theory: Peplau (1988)
  • Health promotion: Pender (1987)
  • Goal attainment: King (1981)
  • Interaction model of client behavior: Cox (1982)
  • Self-care deficit theory: Orem (1991
  • Unitary person: Rogers (1970)
  • Adaptation: Roy (1984)
  • Systems model: Neuman (1972)

Some Theoretical frameworks from other disciplines:

  • Social learning theory: Bandua (1986); Rotter (1954)
  • Adult learning theory: Knowles (1980)
  • Role theory: Mead (1934)
  • State-Traite Anxiety: Spielburg (1972)
  • Stress: Selye (1976)
  • Helplessness: Seligman (1975)
  • Cognitive dissonance: Festinger (1957)
  • Developmental theory: Piaget (1926); Freud (1938); Erickson (1950); Havighurst (1952)
  • Motivation: Maslow (1970)
  • Crisis: Caplan (1964)
  • Relaxation: Benson (1975)
  • Pain: Melzak and Wall (1983)
  • Body Image: Schilder (1952)
  • Job satisfaction: Herzberg (1966)
  • Family theory (Minuchin (1974); Duvall (1977)
  • Family communication: Satir (1967)
  • Coping: Lazarus and Folkman (1984)
  • Moral reasoning: Kohlberg (1978)
  • Change theory: Lewin (1951)
  • Health behaviors: Becker (1985)
  • Health Belief: Becker (1955)
  • Attitudes: Fishbein & Ajzen (1975)
  • Gate control: Melzak & Wall (1983)

Students Of CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes

CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework : Once a theoretical framework is selected, it should be used throughout the study. This means that it guides the entire research process; however, the entire theory is not tested in one study.

These are the steps when a researcher selects and uses a framework:

  • Do a search of the literature for theories and examine various theories to determine what might be appropriate to examine the research problem.
  • Select the theory for the research study. This is the theory that will guide and direct the research process.
  • Conduct a comprehensive review of literature on studies that used this theory base
  • Formulate the hypotheses or research questions to be tested using the theory or propositions fromwithin the theory,
  • Write the conceptual definitions of the study variables based on the theory, .
  • Operationalize the study variables by selecting the instruments that will be used to test the concepts. The instrument must be congruent with the theory.
  • Explain the findings of the study using the theory,
  • Draw conclusions from the results based on the theory.
  • Decide if the theory is supported by the results of the study
  • Determine if there are any implications from the results that can be related to the theory
  • Make recommendations for future research and include use of the theory

What do you mean, not based on my suspicions alone?

The theoretical framework is a summary of your theory regarding a particular problem that is developed through a review of previous research on the variables involved. It identifies a plan for investigation and interpretation of the findings. The theoretical framework involves a well-supported rationale and is organized in a manner that helps the reader understand and assess your perspective. The purpose is to demonstrate that the relationships you propose are not based on your personal instincts or guesses, but rather formed from facts obtained from authors of previous research.

Why is the theoretical framework important?

The development of the theoretical framework helps to clarify your implicit theory in a manner that is more clearly defined.  It helps you to consider other possible frameworks and to reduce biases that may sway your interpretation. As you develop your theoretical framework you will consider alternative theories that might challenge your perspective. You will also consider the limitations associated with your theory, and quite possibly, that your problem could be better understood by other theoretical frameworks.

The theoretical framework is how you conceptualize the nature of your research problem, its basis and the analysis you will choose to investigate that problem. This framework determines how you perceive, make sense of, and interpret your data. Explanation of the theoretical framework helps the reader understand your perspective and context.

How do I develop a theoretical framework?

The theoretical framework is developed from and connected to your review of the knowledge on the topic (the literature review). This knowledge is likely how you initially formulated your research problem. You reviewed the literature and found gaps in the explanation of some phenomenon. The theoretical framework allows you to present the research problem in light of a summary of the literature.

Your description of the variables of interest in context of the literature review allows the reader to understand the theorized relationships. You should begin by describing what is known about your variables, what is known about their relationship, and what can be explained thus far. You will investigate other researchers’ theories behind these relationships and identify a theory (or combination of theories) that explains your major research problem. Essentially, your goal is to convey to the reader why you think your variables are related, so the inclusion of previous research and theories that support your belief are essential to defending your rationale. You apply the theory to your problem, and state your hypotheses or predictions regarding potential relationships. You tell the reader what you expect to find in your research.

How does theoretical framework relate to quantitative research design?

There is a link between theoretical framework and quantitative research design. The choice of research design is based on the goals of the study and a solid review of the literature. Quantitative research design utilizes deductive reasoning, which begins with identifying the theoretical framework that will provide structure and guide the research project. The theoretical framework is presented in the early sections of a quantitative research proposal to establish the grounds for the study.

The theoretical framework will direct the research methods you choose to employ. The chosen methodology should provide conclusions that are compatible with the theory.

To know more about class 11 Commerce project, you can go through the following link. accountancy project class 11

Download here CBSE Class 11 Commerce Accountancy Theoretical Framework Important Notes

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