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Cause and Effect Reasoning notes – CSEET

Cause and Effect Reasoning notes – CSEET

Cause and Effect Reasoning:

ICSI CSEET: The Council of the ICSI has released a notice regarding CSEET on the day of the inauguration of ICSI Golden Jubilee Celebrations on 4th Oct 2017.

The Gazette Notification on the Company Secretaries (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 has been published on 3rd February 2020 in the Official Gazette of India and the same shall be applicable from the said date of publication.

Now ICSI Published a notice regarding CSEET Test which going to start from 2020 May.

We are now going to discuss the details of CSEET Paper-2 Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning – Cause and Effect Reasoning notes.

cause and effect reasoning

cause and effect reasoning

Cause and Effect Reasoning:

Introduction

In this type of reasoning, each question contains two statements and the students have to find out relationship between the two statements. Here the students have to test whether the statements are related to each other or not. Read them and choose the best option that describes the relationship between them. These types of problems judge the reasoning and analytical power of the students. Therefore, Candidates are advised to read the statements very well to arrive at a particular conclusion. Example

Statement

  1. Everybody should work hard.
  2. The only way to achieve success is to work hard.

A – Statement I is the reason and statement II is the response.

B – Statement II is the reason and statement I is the response.

C – Both the statements I and II are the not depended reasons.

D – Both the statements I and II are the response of not depended reasons.

E – Both the statements I and II are the response of some common reasons.

Herein the Answer is Option A

Explanation –

In the statement I, it told about a generic statement. Working hard can be taken as a reason but to describe it as a reason there should be some response. The response is shown in statement II that tells that through hard work one can achieve success. Hence it shows that, statement I is the reason and statement II is the response.

Types of Statement

Type – I

These kinds of Statements are about those cases where there will be a direct reason and response type of statement will be present in the question. The last example that we have discussed goes under this category. Now let’s discuss another problem of the same kind.

Statement

  1. Apple has vitamin D that helps in boosting immunity.
  2. Doctors advice to eat an apple every day.

A – Statement I is the reason and statement II is the response.

B – Statement II is the reason and statement I is the response.

C – Both the statements I and II are the not depended reasons.

D – Both the statements I and II are the response of not depended reasons.

E – Both the statements I and II are the response of some common reasons.

Answer – Option B

Explanation – Here we can clearly see the reason is statement II. This is a reason to describe its response, which is statement I that tells the necessity of consuming an apple every day.

Type – II

Here we will discuss about those cases in which both the statements will be the response of some common reason. Let’s analyze it with an example.

Statement

  1. There has been a curfew in the city.
  2. 24 hours police patrolling is going on in the city.

A – Statement I is the reason and statement II is the response.

B – Statement II is the reason and statement I is the response.

C – Both the statements I and II are the not depended reasons.

D – Both the statements I and II are the response of not depended reasons.

E – Both the statements I and II are the response of some common reasons.

Answer – Option E

Explanation

Clearly both the statements are directing towards a common reason. To simply our thought process we can assume that for some common reason like Hindu -Muslim riot must have been reason this type of situation.

Types – III

Sometimes the two statements are the response of some not depended reasons. Let’s try to analyze this with an example.

Statement

  1. There has been a curfew in the city.
  2. Doctors advice to eat an apple every day.

A – Statement I is the reason and statement II is the response.

B – Statement II is the reason and statement I is the response.

C – Both the statements I and II are the not depended reasons.

D – Both the statements I and II are the response of not depended reasons.

E – Both the statements I and II are the response of some common reasons.

Answer – Option D

Explanation

We can clearly analyze one thing that, eating apple and curfew are nowhere related to each other. Hence, they must be the response of not depended reasons.

Types of Causes

There can be different causes in following categories:

  1. Immediate Cause : This is the cause that has occurred most recently. Consider the example of snowfall. Water is heated by the sun and it evaporates into the atmosphere. Once in the atmosphere, it cools down to a very low temperature and precipitates as snow. There are a few causes that have led to snowfall. The most immediate being the fact that the raindrops freeze in the low temperatures of the atmosphere.
  2. Principal Cause : This is the main cause responsible for an event. The immediate cause may or may not be the Principal cause.
  3. Independent Cause : This is the cause that is independent of the events. In other words, the effect and the cause may not have a direct relationship or any relationship at all.

Cause and Effect Reasoning: Possibilities

The question on cause and effect reasoning are mainly designed to decide on a candidate’s ability to analyze a pair of given statements and to correlate them in terms of cause and effect. Five possibilities may arise:

  1. The fact in the first statement is the effect of that mentioned in the second statement i.e. the second statement expresses the cause that leads to the condition mentioned in the first;
  2. The contents of the first statement form the direct cause of the result discussed in the second statement;
  3. Both the statements express generalized results that may not be backed by any specific cause but may influence certain other factors;
  4. Both the statements are independent and may be explained as effects of different independent causes;
  5. The effects in both the given statements may be caused or triggered by a third unmentioned

event which may thus be called the common cause of the given events.

Directions or Tips

In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer accordingly.

Give answer (a) if statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

Give answer (b) if statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

Give answer (c) if both the statements I and II are independent causes

Give answer (d) if both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

Give answer (e) if both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

Example -1

  1. The local traders’ association urged all its members to close down their shops for a day to protest against the government’s new tax policy.
  2. Many shopkeepers decided to close down their shops for the day and gave a day off to their employees.

Solution

Clearly, the association’s decision to go for a ‘bandh’ on a massive scale to protest against the government’s new policy would have instigated the shopkeepers to keep their shops closed. Thus, I mentions the direct cause of the effect in II. Hence the answer is (a).

Sample Questions

Directions : In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer accordingly.

Give answer (a) if statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect;

Give answer (b) if statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect;

Give answer (c) if both the statements I and II are independent causes;

Give answer (d) if both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes;

Give answer (e) if both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

Q.1.

  1. The prices of vegetables have been increased considerably during this summer.
  2. There is tremendous increase in the temperature during this summer thereby damaging crops greatly.

Answer B

Solution

Clearly, damage to crops due to high temperature may have resulted in a short supply of vegetables and hence an increase in their prices

Q.2

  1. Police resorted to lathi to disperse the unlawful gathering of large number of people.
  2. The citizens’ forum called a general strike in protest against the police atrocities.

Answer A

Solution

Clearly, the people’s mass protest against the police might have instigated the latter to indulge in lathi-charge to disperse the mob.

Q.3

  1. It is the aim of the city’s civic authority to get air pollution reduced by 20% in the next two months.
  2. The number of asthma cases in the city is constantly increasing.

Answer B

Solution

The increase in number of asthma cases must have alerted the authorities to take action to control air pollution that triggers the disease.

Q.4

  1. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.
  2. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.

Answer E

Solution

Both the statements are clearly backed by a common cause, which is clearly and increase in the number of thefts in the locality.

Q.5

  1. The university authority has instructed all the colleges under its jurisdiction to ban use of all phones inside the college premises.
  2. Majority of the teachers of the colleges signed a joint petition to the university complaining the disturbances caused by cell phone ring-tones inside the classroom.

Answer B

Solution

Clearly, the university’s decision came as a sequel to the complaint received by it from the college teachers against use of mobile phones in the college premises.

Q.6

  1. The government has recently fixed the fees for professional courses offered by the unaided institutions which are much lower than the fees charged last year.
  2. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged by the unaided institutions.

Answer B

Solution

The parents’ protest against high fees being charged by the institutional led the government to interfere and fix the fees at a more affordable level.

Q.7.

  1. Large number of people living in the low-lying areas have been evacuated during the last few days to safer places.
  2. The Government has rushed in relief supplies to the people living in the areas.

Answer E

Solution

Evacuating low-lying areas and rushing in relief to the affected areas clearly that floods have occurred in the area.

Q.8.

  1. The performance of most of the students in final exam of class X in the by the Government was excellent.
  2. Many teachers of the Government schools left the school and joined private school.

Answer D

Solution

The students of government schools performing well in the examinations and the teacher of government schools leaving their jobs to join private school are two separate situations that must have been triggered by independent causes.

Q.9.

  1. Majority of the citizens in the locality belong to higher income group.
  2. The sales in the local supermarket are comparatively much higher than in other localities.

Answer B

Solution

The comparatively higher sales in a particular locality are indicative of the high paying capacity of the residents of that locality.

Q.10.

  1. There is considerable reduction in the number of people affected by water-borne disease in City A during this rainy season.
  2. The government has opened four new civil hospitals in City A in the beginning of the year.

Answer C

Solution

The given statements are self-sufficient and depict independent events.

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